Thursday, 20 September 2018

Homework 2017-2018

Workbook
You can do the exercises in Units 1-20

Blog  

In this blog you will find extra material to improve your English. 
 

Fire Drill Procedure
General School Information
Bibliography C2
Unit 1         1.1        1.2         1.3       Exam folder 1
Unit 2         2.1        2.2         2.3       Writing folder 1
Unit 3         3.1        3.2         3.3       Exam folder 2
Unit 4         4.1        4.2         4.3       Writing folder 2     Revision U 1-4
Unit 5         5.1        5.2         5.3       Exam folder 3 
Unit 6         6.1        6.2         6.3       Writing folder 3
Unit 7         7.1        7.2         7.3       Exam folder 4
Unit 8         8.1        8.2         8.3       Writing folder 4     Revision U 5-8
Unit 9         9.1        9.2         9.3       Exam folder 5
Unit 10       10.1      10.2      10.3       Writing folder 5
Unit 11       11.1      11.2      11.3       Exam folder 6
Unit 12       12.1      12.2      12.3       Writing folder 6     Revision U 9-12
Unit 13       13.1      13.2      13.3       Exam folder 7
Unit 14       14.1      14.2      14.3       Writing folder 7
Unit 15       15.1      15.2      15.3       Exam folder 8
Unit 16       16.1      16.2      16.3       Writing folder 8     Revision U 13-16
Unit 17       17.1      17.2      17.3       Exam folder 9
Unit 18       18.1      18.2      18.3       Writing folder 9
Unit 19       19.1      19.2      19.3       Exam folder 10
Unit 20       20.1      20.2      20.3       Writing folder 10   Revision U 17-20

Get ready for the speaking exam
Guide 

English C2 Blog Posts  




Assignments
1. Writing and presentation: 

Personal Profile: My Life in 5 Minutes  (200 words) (deadline: 11 Oct)
Write a personal profile for your new English class  
You will find useful language here. And here:
Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking
Present it to the class without reading


2.
Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 18 Oct).
Topic: Changes and Expectations . Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p.12. Changes. Speaking 

Objective Proficiency p 16. Expectations. Extra Speaking

3. Writing:
An essay (200 words) (deadline 30 Oct)
Write a balanced discussion ( essay ) on the following theme: "Do people always live up to our expectations? What is the right thing to do? And is it what is right always fair?" You can also get some ideas on this topic here.

You can get more information on writing essays on pages 22 &23, 56 & 57, here and here. You will find useful language, here, here , here , here  and here  

Here you have other ideas for a balanced discussion (discursive essay):  "The internet poses one of the greatest threats to our existence"
 "The process, the necessity and the inevitability of major political, cultural, and social change". You can also get some ideas on this topic in Unit 1 and on this website
 
4.
Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 6 Nov).
Topic: Travel and Work. Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 16. Travel. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 17. Living In the Lap of Luxury Vs Living Rough in One Snapshot. Extra Speaking 

Objective Proficiency p 157. Immigration. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 21. Work. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 128. Work. Extra Speaking

5.1 Writing:
A review (200 words) (deadline 15 Nov)
An international magazine wants readers to contribute writing a review about a musical, opera, concert or music event they have recently been to. You can get information on writing reviews on pages 38 & 39. You can find some useful vocabulary about the topic of music here. Finally, you can find useful language for writing here. 

Here you can find useful language for reviews.
 

5.2 Writing
A 100-Word Short Story (100 words) (deadline 15 Nov)
Not a word more, not a word less: Can YOU write a 100-word short story? Enter this competition where the winner will receive £250 in book tokens.

HOW TO ENTER 

TO ENTER, send your work to shortstory@mailonsunday.co.uk. Entries must be received by midnight on Friday, November 17, 2017. Entries must run to exactly 100 words, excluding the title. The top ten stories will be published in The Mail on Sunday and the winner will receive £250 in book tokens. 
Find out more here

6. Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 22 Nov).
Topic: Anecdotes, the animal world, and the weather and climate change. Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 24. Guess What! Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 28. Feel Hard Done By

Objective Proficiency p 24. Animals. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 24. The Weather and Climate Change. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 26. How Does the Weather Affect Your Mood? Speaking 

Objective Proficiency p 112. The Environment. Extra Speaking

7. Writing:
A Narrative:
write a narrative for a school contest entitled The Story behind the Picture. Choose a photo and write a story related to the photo. The winners of this contest will win a prize (a book voucher). (Calibri 12. 200 words). Photo size: 10 x 15 cm. (Deadline 29 Nov)

8. Writing
An essay
(200 words) (deadline 11 Dec) Write an essay in response to an article on ethical treatment of animals.
This is an excerpt from the article:


  • Humans are superior, non-human animals are inferior. Animals were put here as the playthings of humans, for us to do with them what we want. We are able to farm them and control them, we can change their genetics and what they look like, animals have no minds of their own. We eat them, race them and catch them for sport. We even refer to undesirable human behaviour as animal. In this world you either harm or you are harmed. God gave humans the ability to harm, so we do. Animals are here for us to exploit. Maiming and injuring an animal is no different to eating it.

Write your discursive essay. (Objective Proficiency p 56). 
You will get more ideas on how to write an essay on pages 22 &23, 56 & 57  and here. You will find useful language, here, here , here , here  and here
You  can also get some ideas and vocabulary on this topic here

Other ideas for writing a discursive essay:
"Do we as a society take music as seriously as we should?" You can also get some ideas and vocabulary on this topic here .




9.
Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 18 Dec).
Topic: Crime and Punishment, feelings and emotions. Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 26. Crime and Punishment. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 28. Feelings and Emotions. Extra Speaking


10. Writing
A problem-solution essay (200 words) (deadline 10 Jan): find the details HERE


11.
Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 22 Jan).
Topic: Food and health, shopping and consumerism . Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 36. Food. Extra Vocabulary

Objective Proficiency p 36. Food. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 36. Can We Eat Our Way Out Of Climate Change? Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 120. Health. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 43. Just For the Lulz. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 47. Advertising and Shopping. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 76. Clothes. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 128. The Economy. Extra Speaking

12. Writing: 
A proposal (200 words) (deadline 7 Feb)
Your local English radio has started a campaign to try to improve your town. It has invited listeners to send in formal proposals on ways of improving it; these will be considered in a panel discussion on air, voted on by listeners, and the best one sent to the council.
Write your proposal identifying the main problems in your town and making formal recommendations for improving it, with reasons. You can find useful vocabulary to talk about cities here.
More information on writing proposals:

Here you can see examples of how to write proposals. 
Finally, you can find useful language for writing here


Another idea for a proposal: find the details here
 

13. Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 14 Feb).
Topic: Music, art and entertainment. Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 55. Music. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 59. Art or Not Art. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 63. Art and Sight. Extra Speaking 

14. Writing: 
An article (200 words) (deadline: 21 Feb)
An English-language newspaper is inviting readers to contribute to a series of articles about globalisation. You decide to write an article explaining your personal views on this topic. 


Get some ideas here: 
Objective Proficiency p 84. Languages and Globalisation. Extra Speaking  
Objective Proficiency p 17. Living In the Lap of Luxury Vs Living Rough in One Snapshot. Extra Speaking
BBC - GCSE Bitesize: What is globalisation? 
How the World Was Won: The Americanization of Everywhere 
Simon Anholt interview: ‘There is only one global superpower: public opinion’

To see how to write articles click here and also here. You can also get some ideas on how to write articles on pages 90, 91, 158, 159, 174 & 175. Finally, you can find useful language for writing here. 
  

Another idea for writing an article. 
Find the details here.  

15. Speaking:

Make a Presentation (200 words) (deadline: Feb)  
Give a 5 minute presentation on one of the curriculum topics
Deadlines:  

30 Oct: tell your teacher the topic
Feb: give the presentation  

Useful language:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

16. Writing: 
A report (200 words) (deadline 7 Mar)
You work for a company that needs to adapt to the current market needs and trends. Your manager has asked you to write a report about how the Millennial generation is fundamentally changing our culture of consumption and what the company can do to meet their needs and be highly profitable.  You can get some ideas here.
You can get information on writing reports on pages 106 & 107. Finally, you can find useful language for writing a report here, here and here

Another idea for writing a report:
You work for the tourist office in your area. Your manager has asked you to write a report in English on the places that are popular with tourists who are interested in art. You should briefly describe the most popular places. Your report should also recommend two or three improvements that would enhance the tourists' experience and explain why these would attract even more visitors. You can find useful vocabulary to talk about art here.



17.
Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 14 Mar).
Topic: Housing. Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 70. Digital Human: Home. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 70. Homes. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 71. City Living. Extra Speaking

18. Writing: 
Write a letter (200 words) (deadline: 21 March)
You are concerned about the food that is given to children at schools today. You decide to write a letter of complaint to the Department of Education outlining your concerns for school food today and the actions you think need to be taken by governments to ensure our children continue to get the great all round food education they need to feed themselves better in the future and to help reduce the crippling rise in obesity.
You can get more information on writing letters on pages 124 & 125. You will also find a letter writing guide here and here . You can find useful language here, here: Formal letters, here:  How to write.  and here.
You can get some ideas on the topic here: 
Objective Proficiency p 124. Tackling the Obesity Problem. Extra Listening
Objective Proficiency p 123. Sweet Tooth Gone Bad: Why 22 Teaspoons Of Sugar Per Day Is Risky. Extra Listening 
Objective Proficiency p 120. Why Calories Count. Extra Listening 
Objective Proficiency p 120. Diet and Exercise. Extra Vocabulary 
Objective Proficiency p 120.For Mind And Body: Study Finds Mediterranean Diet Boosts Both . Extra Listening  
Objective Proficiency p 120. Obesity on the Rise. Extra Listening  
Objective Proficiency p 120. Childhood Obesity. Extra Listening 
Objective Proficiency p 120. Me and My Shadow. Extra Listening 
Objective Proficiency p 120. Weight Bias at Home and School . Extra Listening

Another idea for writing a formal letter:
You have read an article that appeared on the NPR website entitled "Will We 'Fix' The Weather? Yes. Should We Fix The Weather? Hmmm". You decide to write a letter to the writer of the article, , commenting on the views expressed and giving your own opinions. Finally, you can get some ideas for your response in the comments readers have left below the article
 

19. Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 11 Apr).
Topic:  Education; languages and globalization; science and technology. Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 79.The Educators: Daisy Christodoulou. Extra Listening and Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 79. Education. Speaking 

Objective Proficiency p 84. Languages and Globalisation. Extra Speaking 

Objective Proficiency p 90. Science and Technology. Extra Speaking.

Objective Proficiency p 109. Travel. Extra Speaking

20. Writing: 
Write a review (200 words)(deadline: 18 April)
Write a review of two books you have read this year.   Useful language. You can also find some more useful language on pages 140 and 141. (Deadlines: before 30 Oct tell your teacher the book you are going to read. In April hand in your review).  Click here for a list of readers and more instructions for this assignment. 
 

21. Speaking: write a five-minute presentation (200 words). Use this Guide. (deadline: 25 Apr).
Topic: Relationships, politics . Get your ideas here:

Speakout Advanced p 63. Monologue. Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 92. Relationships. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 96. Living Alone. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 156. Politics. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 152. Major Events and the Most Relevant People. Extra Speaking

22. Writing:
Write an article. (200 words) (deadline: 2 May)
Find the details here: Objective Proficiency p 158. Writing an Article


23. Writing:
Last assignment:
Reflection: write a letter to your teacher
(150 words)(deadline 14 May)
We are approaching the end of the academic year. You decide to write a letter to your teacher giving him some feedback about the course. In your reflection you can include aspects of the course that you loved or loathed; what you found useful or useless; suggestions for the future and any other aspect you may consider worth pointing out in order to improve the teaching and learning process of this course.
You will find a letter writing guide here and here . You can find useful language here.
Formal letters.
How to write. 

Friday, 23 February 2018

Interesting Vocabulary for C2



Vocabulary
Open Cloze
City of Literature
  • Stretch + adverb/preposition: to continue over a period of time. E.g. The town's history stretches back to before 1500. The training stretches over a period of 16 months. The tradition stretches back for well over 200 years.
  • Many a: (formal) used with a singular noun and verb to mean ‘a large number of’. E.g. Many a good man has been destroyed by drink.
  • Come to/into something: used in many expressions to show that something has reached a particular state. E.g. At last winter came to an end. He came to power in 2006. When will they come to a decision? The trees are coming into leaf.
  • Being: existence. E.g. The Irish Free State came into being in 1922. The single market came into being in 1993. 
  • Be (a) witness to something: (formal) to see something take place. E.g. He has been witness to a terrible murder. 
  • Incomparable: /ɪnˈkɒmprəbl/
  • Put yourself/somebody forward: to suggest yourself/somebody as a candidate for a job or position. E.g. Can I put you/your name forward for club secretary? He has put himself forward for a place on the national executive. 
  • Sit up (and do something): (informal) to start to pay careful attention to what is happening, being said, etc. E.g. The proposal had made his clients sit up and take notice.
Word formation
Collecting Things
  • Riveting: /ˈrɪvɪtɪŋ/ so interesting or exciting that it holds your attention completely. engrossing. Sp. fascinante. E.g. As usual, she gave a riveting performance. (Humorous) It was hardly the most riveting of lectures, was it?
  • Overview: a general description or an outline of something. E.g. a brief overview of the survey. Exam overview.
  • Arise, arose /əˈrəʊz/, arisen: to happen; to start to exist. Sp. surgir. E.g. A new crisis has arisen.
  • Insight (into something): an understanding of what something is like. E.g. The book gives us fascinating insights into life in Mexico. I hope you have gained some insight into the difficulties we face.
Multiple Choice Cloze
Tempting (0)__________ in the supermarket?
tempt fate/providence: to do something too confidently in a way that might mean that your good luck will come to an end. E.g. She felt it would be tempting fate to try the difficult climb a second time.
muster something (up) to find as much support, courage, etc. as you can. To try to produce as much of a feeling such as enthusiasm or determination as you can.  E.g. We mustered what support we could for the plan.She left the room with all the dignity she could muster.He could muster only 154 votes at the election. He was trying to muster support from MPs. It demanded all the willpower I could muster. He replied with as much dignity as he could muster. I finally mustered up the courage to call them.
grapple: 1 [intransitive, transitive] to take a firm hold of somebody/ something and struggle with them. Sp. luchar, pelear, forcejear. E.g. Grapple (with somebody/something) Passers-by grappled with the man after the attack. Grapple somebody/something (+ adverb/preposition) They managed to grapple him to the ground. 2. to try hard to find a solution to a problem. Sp. tratar de resolver. E.g. grapple with something The new government has yet to grapple with the problem of air pollution. Grapple to do something I was grappling to find an answer to his question.
gouge something (in something) /ɡaʊdʒ/ 1. to make a hole or cut in something with a sharp object in a rough or violent way. E.g. The lion's claws had gouged a wound in the horse's side. He had gouged her cheek with a screwdriver. 2. gouge somebody/something (North American English) to force somebody to pay an unfairly high price for something; to raise prices unfairly. E.g. Housing shortages permit landlords to gouge their renters. Price gouging is widespread. 

rein somebody/something back/ rein something in 1. to start to control somebody/ something more strictly. Keep under control; restrain. E.g. We need to rein back public spending. She kept her emotions tightly reined in. The government had failed to rein in public spending. 2. to stop a horse or make it go more slowly by pulling back the reins.

2. D sneakily
sneakily: behaving in a secret and sometimes dishonest or unpleasant way. In a surreptitious (done secretly or quickly, in the hope that other people will not notice) manner. Surreptitiously. E.g. But the Queen apparently finds it strange when people try to sneakily take a picture with her.

curmudgeonly /kɜːˈmʌdʒənli/ (adj) bad-tempered. E.g. I don't know, it's hard to explain how I feel without sounding curmudgeonly and bitter.
curmudgeon /kɜːˈmʌdʒən/ (N) a bad-tempered person, often an old one. E.g. Only the worst curmudgeon could dislike this site.
unsightly: /ʌnˈsaɪtli/ not pleasant to look at. Ugly. E.g. an unsightly scar. Unsightly factories.
intricately:  elaborately /ɪˈlæbərətli/, in an elaborate way. Having a lot of different parts and small details that fit together. Very complicated or detailed. E.g. intricately carved. Intricately designed. The stories are intricately constructed and subtle. Intricately detailed. All of those things are intricately linked. 
thwart /θwɔːt/ to prevent somebody from doing what they want to do. Frustrate. E.g. thwart something to thwart somebody's plans. Thwart somebody (in something) She was thwarted in her attempt to take control of the party.
 thaw (out) (of ice and snow) to turn back into water after being frozen. Melt. E.g. The country was slowly thawing out after the long cold winter. 
thwack somebody/something to hit somebody/ something hard, making a short loud sound. E.g.  she thwacked the back of their knees with a cane. He just thwacked me on the back of the head with a ruler.    
throb: 1. throb (with something) (of a part of the body) to feel a series of regular painful movements. E.g. His head throbbed painfully. My feet were throbbing after the long walk home. 2. To beat or sound with a strong, regular rhythm. Pulsate. E.g. The ship's engines throbbed quietly. The blood was throbbing in my veins. The club was throbbing to the beat of the music.
bend/lean/fall over backwards (to do something) to make a great effort, especially in order to be helpful or fair. To do everything possible to please someone. E.g. I've bent over backwards to help him.  I bent over backwards to make it easier for her and she didn't even notice. The taxi driver fell over backwards to be helpful. The teacher bent over backwards to help the students understand. 
surplus: more than is needed or used. E.g. surplus cash. Surplus grain is being sold for export. This diet guarantees to help you shed surplus fat. Surplus to something These items are surplus to requirements(= not needed). 
sling: to throw something somewhere in a careless way. E.g. Don't just sling your clothes on the floor.She slung her coat into the back of the car. 
6 B nestling 
nestle: /ˈnesl/ 1 [intransitive] + adverb/preposition to sit or lie down in a warm or soft place. E.g. He hugged her and she nestled against his chest. 2 [transitive] nestle somebody/ something + adverb/ preposition to put or hold somebody/ something in a comfortable position in a warm or soft place. He nestled the baby in his arms. She nestled her head against his shoulder. 3 [intransitive] + adverb/ preposition to be located in a position that is protected, sheltered or partly hidden. E.g. The little town nestles snugly (in a warm, comfortable and protected manner) at the foot of the hill.

schlep: 1. to go somewhere, especially if it is a slow, difficult journey, or you do not want to go. E.g. The restaurant's supposed to be great but I don't feel like schlepping all the way out there. 2. schlep something (+ adverb/preposition) to carry or pull something heavy. E.g. I'm not schlepping these suitcases all over town.
latch: latch on (to something) | latch onto something (informal) 1. to understand an idea or what somebody is saying. Sp. entender. E.g. It was a difficult concept to grasp, but I soon latched on. He latched on to the truth. 2. to become attached to somebody/something. Sp. Agarrarse. E.g. antibodies that latch onto germs. 3. to develop a strong interest in something. Sp. acoplarse. E.g. She always latches on to the latest craze.

garnish something (with something) to decorate a dish of food with a small amount of another food. E.g. Garnish the chicken with almonds. Soup garnished with croutons.
7. D baubles 
bauble /ˈbɔːbl/ a decoration for a Christmas tree in the shape of a ball.

babble: 1 the sound of many people speaking at the same time. E.g. a babble of voices. 2 talking that is confused or silly and is difficult to understand. E.g. I can't listen to his constant babble. 3 the sounds a baby makes before beginning to say actual words.

gable: /ˈɡeɪbl/ the upper part of the end wall of a building, between the two sloping sides of the roof, that is shaped like a triangle.

crackle: /ˈkrækl/  a series of short sharp sounds. E.g. the distant crackle of machine-gun fire. Erika picked up the phone and through a barrage (/ˈbærɑːʒ/ a large number of something) of crackles heard a familiar voice. The crackle of thunder in the distance.
8 C gorge 
gorge: /ɡɔːdʒ/ gorge (yourself) (on something) (sometimes disapproving) to eat a lot of something, until you are too full to eat any more.

stuff to eat a lot of food or too much food; to give somebody a lot or too much to eat. E.g. stuff somebody/ yourself. He sat at the table stuffing himself. Stuff somebody/ yourself with something Don't stuff the kids with chocolate before their dinner. Stuff your face We stuffed our faces at the party. 

gobble: to eat something very fast, in a way that people consider rude or greedy. Wolf. Gobble (something) E.g. Don't gobble your food like that! Gobble something up/down They gobbled down all the sandwiches.
wolf something (down) (informal) to eat food very quickly, especially by putting a lot of it in your mouth at once.  E.g. The girls wolfed down the pizza in minutes.

9 D lashings
lashings [plural] (British English, informal) a large amount of something, especially of food and drink. E.g. a bowl of strawberries with lashings of cream.  

eaterie (also eatery) /ˈiːtəri/ a restaurant or cafe. E.g. The resort has a vast selection of restaurants and eateries, serving French, Italian, American and Indian cuisine.

scruple: /ˈskruːpl/ a feeling that prevents you from doing something that you think may be morally wrong. E.g. I overcame my moral scruples. He had no scruples about spying on her. She is totally without scruple.

Tribulation: /ˌtrɪbjuˈleɪʃn/ great trouble or suffering. E.g. the tribulations of modern life. His time of tribulation was just beginning. The tribulations of being a megastar. 

trials and tribulations Cliché problems and tests of one's courage or perseverance. E.g. I suppose I have the normal trials and tribulations for a person of my background, but some days are just a little too much for me. I promise not to tell you of the trials and tribulations of my day if you promise not to tell me yours!  
10. C chomping
chomp: to eat or bite food noisily. E.g. chomp (away) (on/through something) She was chomping away on a bagel. He was chomping on a roll.

engross somebody: / ɪnˈɡrəʊs/ if something engrosses you, it is so interesting that you give it all your attention and time. E.g. As the business grew, it totally engrossed him. An engrossing problem. The most engrossing parts of the book.

 

Relish: to get great pleasure from something; to want very much to do or have something. Enjoy. E.g. relish something to relish a fight/ challenge/ debate. To relish the idea/ thought of something. I don't relish the prospect of getting up early tomorrow.

chuck: to throw something carelessly or without much thought. E.g. chuck something (+ adverb/ preposition) He chucked the paper in a drawer. Chuck somebody something Chuck me the newspaper, would you?
Chuck in: quit. E.g. The simple truth is, if you chuck in your job and decide to write full time, unless you're very lucky, you're going to run out of cash pretty soon.
11. A feast
Feast your eyes (on somebody/something) to look at somebody/something and get great pleasure. E.g. If you're looking for new kitchen utensils, feast your eyes on these goodies.

Crave: crave (for) something/ crave to do something to have a very strong desire for something. E.g. She has always craved excitement

Scrub: to clean something by rubbing it hard, perhaps with a brush and usually with soap and water. E.g. I found him in the kitchen, scrubbing the floor. He stepped into the shower and scrubbed himself all over.

Spatter: / ˈspætə(r)/ to cover somebody/something with drops of liquid, dirt, etc, especially by accident. Sp. Salpicar. E.g. As the bus passed, it spattered us with mud. 2. fall so as to be scattered over an area. E.g. she watched the raindrops spatter down.

12 D perfunctory
perfunctory /pəˈfʌŋktəri/ done as a duty or habit, without real interest, attention or feeling. E.g. a perfunctory nod/smile. They only made a perfunctory effort.

Gargantuan: / ɡɑːˈɡæntʃuən/ extremely large. Enormous. E.g. a gargantuan appetite/ meal

Fallacious: /fəˈleɪʃəs/ wrong; based on a false idea. Sp. erróneo, engañoso. E.g. a fallacious argument.

Scarcely: /ˈskeəsli/ only just; almost not. Sp. apenas. E.g. I can scarcely believe it. We scarcely ever meet. Scarcely a week goes by without some new scandal in the papers. There was scarcely a tree left standing after the storm.

shed something (often used in newspapers) to get rid of something that is no longer wanted. E.g. The factory is shedding a large number of jobs. A quick way to shed unwanted pounds (= extra weight or fat on your body). Museums have been trying hard to shed their stuffy (very serious, formal, boring or old-fashioned) image.
13 A oodles 
oodles (of something) (old-fashioned, informal) a large amount of something. Loads. E.g. Bob makes oodles of money, you know. 

Yarn /jɑːn/ 1. [uncountable, countable] thread that has been spun, used for knitting, making cloth, etc. 2. a long story, especially one that is exaggerated or invented. E.g. A good yarn. He used to spin yarns (= tell stories) about his time in the Army.

Hoax: / həʊks/ an act intended to make somebody believe something that is not true, especially something unpleasant. Sp. engaño, broma. E.g. a bomb hoax. Hoax calls. The emergency call turned out to be a hoax. Was the moon landing a hoax? How many hoaxes have you unknowingly believed?

Hurdles a race in which runners or horses have to jump over hurdles (vertical frames that a person or horse jumps over in a race. Sp. Vallas. E.g. the 300 m hurdles. 
Hurdle: a problem or difficulty that must be solved or dealt with before you can achieve something. Obstacle. E.g. the next hurdle will be getting her parents' agreement. Well we've cleared the first hurdle; let's see what happens next. We worked hard for three months on the deal only to see it fall at the final hurdle. 

elegant sufficiencyIt is a refinement of "Have you had sufficient/enough?"  E.g. "Have you had (an) elegant sufficiency?" After serving a meal and the guests have eaten, the host might ask "Have you had elegant sufficiency?" meaning 'Was that meal adequate for you, or would you like some more?' 
14.  C wont
wont: /wəʊnt/ wont (to do something) in the habit of doing something. Accustomed. E.g. He was wont to fall asleep after supper.

used to be used to + -ing
habit: in the habit of 
want (not usually used in the progressive tenses)
15. B opined
opine that… /əʊˈpaɪn/ (formal) to express a particular opinion. E.g. He opined that Prague was the most beautiful city in Europe. 

opinionated (adj) /əˈpɪnjəneɪtɪd/ having very strong opinions that you are not willing to change. E.g. I've never met anyone so arrogant and opinionated.

decry: /dɪˈkraɪ/ decry somebody/something (as something) (formal) to strongly criticize somebody/ something, especially publicly. E.g. The measures were decried as useless.

Gapped sentences
  • Appeal: 1. a quality that makes somebody/something attractive or interesting. E.g. mass/wide/popular appeal. The Beatles have never really lost their appeal. The prospect of living in a city holds little appeal for me. 
  • Appeal: 2. an urgent and deeply felt request for money, help or information, especially one made by a charity or by the police. E.g. to launch a TV appeal for donations to the charity. 
  • Appeal (to somebody/something) (against something): to make a formal request to a court or to somebody in authority for a judgement or a decision to be changed. Sp. apelar, recurrir. E.g. He said he would appeal after being found guilty on four counts of murder. The company is appealing against the ruling (Sp. fallo, resolución).
  • Table something: to leave an idea, a proposal, etc. to be discussed at a later date. Sp. posponer. E.g. They voted to table the proposal until the following meeting. 
  • Table manners: the behaviour that is considered correct while you are having a meal at a table with other people.
  • Water table: the level at and below which water is found in the ground.
  • Fanfare: a large amount of activity and discussion on television, in newspapers, etc. to celebrate somebody/something. E.g. The product was launched amid much fanfare worldwide. Despite the fanfare of publicity that accompanied its launch, his latest novel sold only a few hundred copies.
  • Outlet: a point from which goods are sold or distributed. Sp. punto de venta. E.g. a fast-food outlet.
  • Stand (on something): an attitude towards something or an opinion that you make clear to people. Sp. postura. E.g. to take a firm stand on something. He was criticized for his tough stand on immigration.
  • Stand (for/as something):  (North American English usually run) to be a candidate in an election. He stood for parliament (= tried to get elected as an MP). She stood unsuccessfully as a candidate in the local elections. 
  • Stand: a table or a vertical structure where things are displayed or advertised, for example at an exhibition. E.g. a display/an exhibition/a trade stand. Oxford University Press's stand at the book fair.

Key word transformation
  • Come to light: to become known to people. E.g. New evidence has recently come to light. 
  • Break: when the day or dawn or a storm breaks, it begins. E.g. Dawn was breaking when they finally left.
  • TLC: /ˌtiː el ˈsiː/  the abbreviation for ‘tender loving care’ (care that you give somebody to make them feel better). E.g. What he needs now is just rest and a lot of TLC.
  • hound: a dog that can run fast and has a good sense of smell, used for hunting. Sp. sabueso. E.g. The hounds picked up the scent of the fox.
  • hubris: /ˈhjuːbrɪs/ the fact of somebody being too proud. In literature, a character with this pride ignores warnings and laws and this usually results in their downfall and death. E.g.  He thought he was above the law and was ultimately punished for his hubris. Scientists may arguably be guilty of hubris in this area.



  • nursery school: (kindergarten, preschool)  a school for children between the ages of about two and five.


  • make out:
    1.  used to ask if somebody managed well or was successful in a particular situation. E.g. How did he make out while his wife was away?
    2.  make somebody out: to understand somebody’s character
    3. make somebody/something out: to manage to see somebody/something or read or hear something. Distinguish. E.g.  I could just make out a figure in the darkness. make out what, who, etc… I could hear voices but I couldn't make out what they were saying.
    4. to say that something is true when it may not be . Claim. E.g. She's not as rich as people make out. make out that… He made out that he had been robbed. make somebody/something out to be/do something She makes herself out to be smarter than she really is.
    5. make something out: to write out or complete a form or document He made out a cheque for €100. The doctor made out a prescription for me. Applications must be made out in triplicate.
    6.  (used in negative sentences and questions) to understand something; to see the reasons for something. E.g. How do you make that out (= what are your reasons for thinking that)? make out what, why, etc… I can't make out what she wants.

    warn (somebody) against/about something E.g. The guidebook warns against walking alone at night.
    warn somebody (to do something) E.g. He warned Billy to keep away from his daughter. 

    marketer: /ˈmɑːkɪtə(r)/ a person or business whose job is to present, advertise and sell a company's products in the best possible way. E.g. a company that is a developer and marketer of software.

    a rush/surge of adrenaline  

    cut-price
    1. sold at a reduced price. E.g. cut-price goods/fares
    2. selling goods at a reduced price.
    E.g. a cut-price store/supermarket
  • snowflake: derogatory, informal An overly sensitive or easily offended person, or one who believes they are entitled to special treatment on account of their supposedly unique characteristics.
  • ‘these little snowflakes will soon discover that life doesn't come with trigger warnings’
  • ‘these parents think their kid is such a special snowflake that they should be allowed to circumvent the rules’
  • Sorely: /ˈsɔːli/ seriously; very much. E.g. I was sorely tempted to complain, but I didn't. If you don't come to the reunion you'll be sorely missed. Their patience was sorely tested as yet another delay to the scheduled service was announced.
  • they will both be sorely missed on the committee


savvy: (N) practical knowledge or understanding of something. E.g. political savvy. Skill isn’t enough—you need savvy too.
savvy: (adj) (savvier, savviest) (informal) having practical knowledge and understanding of something; having common sense. E.g. savvy shoppers. More people are cholesterol savvy today than five years ago.
tech-savvy: (adj) knowing a lot about modern technology, especially computers. E.g. The state needs more tech-savvy workers for its hi-tech industries.
computer-savvy: Having a thorough practical knowledge of computers. E.g. It is tempting to think that because you have used a computer for a long time, you are "computer literate" or "computer savvy," but this is not the case.

deliver a baby to help a woman to give birth to a baby. E.g. The baby was delivered by Caesarean section. 

be delivered of a baby (formal) to give birth to a baby. E.g. She was delivered of a healthy boy.

give birth (to somebody/something) to produce a baby or young animal. E.g. She died shortly after giving birth. Mary gave birth to a healthy baby girl. (figurative) It was the study of history that gave birth to the social sciences
red herring: an unimportant fact, idea, event, etc. that takes people’s attention away from the important ones. ( From the custom of using the smell of a smoked, dried herring (which was red) to train dogs to hunt). E.g. He deliberately threw a red herring into the conversation. The police investigated many clues, but they were all red herrings.

sundry
: /ˈsʌndri/
various; not important enough to be named separately a watch, a diary and sundry other items

all and sundry
(informal) everyone, not just a few special people. E.g. She was known to all and sundry as Bella. The club is open to all and sundry. Regarding sundry income,...
salacious: /səˈleɪʃəs/ (of stories, pictures, etc.) encouraging sexual desire or containing too much sexual detail. E.g. The papers concentrated on the more salacious aspects of the case. Salacious headlines


atone (for something) (formal) to act in a way that shows you are sorry for doing something wrong in the past. Make amends. E.g.  to atone for a crime. a desire to atone.

guzzle (something) (informal, usually disapproving) to drink something quickly and in large amounts. In British English it also means to eat food quickly and in large amounts. E.g. The kids seem to be guzzling soft drinks all day. (figurative) My car guzzles fuel.  Guzzle those greens!

warped: /wɔːpt/
1.       (of a person) having ideas that most people think are strange or unpleasant. E.g. a warped mind. a warped sense of humour.
2. bent or twisted and not in the normal shape. E.g. The floorboards are warped.
concoction: /kənˈkɒkʃn/ a strange or unusual mixture of things, especially drinks or medicines. E.g. a concoction of cream and rum. He gave me some of his herbal concoction when I had toothache.
know your onions: be very knowledgeable about something. If someone says you know your onions, it means you are experienced in something or you know a lot about a particular subject.
"Fred knows his onions about Social Credit"

tremor: /ˈtremə(r)/
1. a small earthquake in which the ground shakes slightly
. E.g. an earth tremor(figurative) The scandal sent tremors through the political establishment.
2.  a slight shaking movement in a part of your body caused, for example, by cold or fear . Quiver. E.g.  There was a slight tremor in his voice. She felt a tremor of fear run through her.
take it into your head to do sth​ to suddenly decide to do something, often something silly or surprising. E.g. Anyway, they took it into their heads to get married. Jane has taken it into her head to become a glassblower, and she's already ordered all the tools. He suddenly took it into his head to go out to Australia to stay with his son.
take it into your head that… to suddenly start thinking something, especially something that other people think is stupid. E.g.  In those years the servant was well enough contented, but no one likes to abide in the same place forever, and so one day he took it into his head that he would like to go out into the world to see what kind of a fortune a man might make there for himself.
sheen: (N) a soft smooth shiny quality Shine. E.g.  Hair with a healthy sheen.

ephemeral:  /ɪˈfemərəl/ lasting or used for only a short period of time. short-lived. E.g. ephemeral pleasures. leaflets, handouts and other ephemeral material. It is a critic’s job to follow every ephemeral fashion. Fame in the world of rock and pop is largely ephemeral.

go off: if food or drink goes off, it becomes bad and not fit to eat or drink. E.g. This bacon smells a bit funny - do you think it's gone off?

haggle (with somebody) (over something) to argue with somebody in order to reach an agreement, especially about the price of something. E.g. I left him in the market haggling over the price of a shirt. We spent a long time haggling with the authorities over our visas.

sybaritic: /ˌsɪbəˈrɪtɪk/  connected with a desire for pleasure. E.g. his sybaritic lifestyle.

sybarite: /ˈsɪbərʌɪt/  A person who is self-indulgent in their fondness for sensuous luxury. E.g.  He is essentially a sybarite, renting a spacious palazzo by the Grand Canal, eating, drinking and, separated from his wife in England, womanising with zest.’

gourmet: /ˈɡʊəmeɪ/ (of food, wine, etc.) of high quality and often expensive; connected with food or wine of this type.
E.g. gourmet food/coffee. a gourmet chef/shop.
unravel (something) to explain something that is difficult to understand or is mysterious; to become clearer or easier to understand. E.g. The discovery will help scientists unravel the mystery of the Ice Age.
woodworm: /ˈwʊdwɜːm/
1.  [countable] a small worm that eats wood, making a lot of small holes in it.
2. [uncountable] the damage caused by woodworms. E.g. The beams are riddled with woodworm.


be riddled with something
to be full of something, especially something bad or unpleasant. E.g. His body was riddled with cancer. Her typing was slow and riddled with mistakes. The woods are riddled with rabbit holes.  
sunbath A period of sunbathing. E.g. ‘an upstairs deck on which you could take a sunbath’
(keep) a stiff upper lip
to keep calm and hide your feelings when you are in pain or in a difficult situation. E.g. He was taught to keep a stiff upper lip and never to cry in public. Their reaction contrasts sharply with the stiff upper lip of the English.

maul
1. maul somebody (of an animal) to attack and injure somebody by tearing their flesh. Savage (Sp. atacar salvajemente a). E.g.     The lion tamer was mauled by one of the lions.El domador de leones fue atacado por uno de los leones
2. maul somebody/something /mɔːl/ to touch somebody/something in an unpleasant and/or violent way. E.g. She was mauled by guards at the border. 
3. maul something/somebody to criticize something/somebody severely and publicly. Savage.
4.  maul somebody (informal) to defeat somebody easily. Trash.

handsy /ˈhan(d)zi/
Tending to touch other people, typically in a way that is inappropriate or unwanted. E.g. ‘another participant is getting a bit handsy’
onus  (also the onus) /ˈəʊnəs/  the responsibility for something. E.g. The onus is on employers to follow health and safety laws. The onus of proof lies with the prosecution. The report puts the onus of children’s early education firmly on the parents.  But in an era where individuals have been empowered to take ownership over their own bodies, calling out ( criticizing) those who transgress physical boundaries, will the lewd (obscene) behaviour associated with 18-30 holidays have to go? And if so, where does responsibility begin and end? Is the onus on the travel companies and venue proprietors, or is it with young people themselves?
lewd: /luːd/ referring to sex in a rude and offensive way .
Obscene. E.g. lewd behaviour/jokes/suggestions
inconsolably/ˌɪnkənˈsəʊləbli/ (also unconsolably /ˌʌnkənˈsəʊləbli/ ) in a very sad way and without being able to accept help or comfort. E.g. to weep inconsolably
sedate: /sɪˈdeɪt/ [usually before noun]
1. slow, calm and relaxed. Unhurried. E.g.  We followed the youngsters at a more sedate pace.
2. quiet, especially in a way that lacks excitement. E.g. a sedate country town a sedate family occasion.
3.  (of a person) quiet and serious in a way that seems formal. E.g. a sedate, sober man