Wednesday, 21 October 2015

Initial Evaluation

PART ONE. OPEN CLOZE. Fill each of the blanks in the following passage with one suitable word
0. somewhat/ rather
somewhat: to some degree. E.g. I was somewhat surprised to see him.
bemuse: /bɪˈmjuːz/ to make somebody confused and unable to think clearly. Bewilder. E.g. he was bemused by what was happening.

1. who/ that 


2. a
giggle: (N) a slight silly repeated laugh. E.g. She gave a nervous giggle. Matt collapsed into giggles and hung up the phone.
giggle: (V) giggle (at/about somebody/something) (+ speech) to laugh in a silly way because you are amused, embarrassed or nervous. E.g. The girls giggled at the joke. They giggled nervously as they waited for their turn. She giggled with delight.

3. to

be down to somebody/something: to be caused by a particular person or thing. E.g. She claimed her problems were down to the media.

4. school
former: that used to have a particular position or status in the past. E.g. the 41-year-old former world champion. Former South African president Nelson Mandela. Both current and former employees. My former boss/colleague/wife. The countries of the former Soviet Union. Former Portuguese colonies.

5. invested 

6. hope
in the hope of something, in the hope that… because you want something to happen. E.g. I called early in the hope of catching her before she went to work. 

7. chances
chance: a possibility of something happening, especially something that you want. E.g. chance of doing something Is there any chance of getting tickets for tonight? 


8. grips

come/get to grips with something: to begin to understand and deal with something difficult. E.g. I'm slowly getting to grips with the language. They have so far failed to come to grips with the ecological problems.


9. order
up something: to increase the price or amount of something. E.g. The buyers upped their offer by £1 000. 


10. at/by
astounded: /əˈstaʊndɪd/ very surprised or shocked by something, because it seems very unlikely. Astonished. E.g. She looked astounded at the news. 


11. walks

a walk of life: a person’s job or position in society. Background. E.g. She has friends from all walks of life. 


12. for
zest: /zest/ zest (for something) enjoyment and enthusiasm. E.g. He had a great zest for life. A zest for battle.


13. despite


14. it

hoof it (informal) to go somewhere on foot; to walk somewhere. E.g. We hoofed it all the way to 42nd Street.  The last bus had gone, so they had to hoof it.

 15. and
unwavering: /ʌnˈweɪvərɪŋ/ not changing or becoming weaker in any way. E.g. unwavering support. Her belief in the project has been unwavering.
dynamism /ˈdaɪnəmɪzəm/ 


16. hand
first hand: yourself, rather than having been given something or told about something by somebody else. E.g. to experience poverty first-hand. First-hand experience. 


17. same

all/just the same despite this. Nevertheless. E.g.  He's not very reliable, but I like him just the same. ‘Will you stay for lunch?’ ‘No, but thanks all the same.’ All the same, there's some truth in what she says. I’m sure he’s safe, but all the same, I wish he’d come home. I didn’t expect to find anything, but I decided to look around just the same.


18. change
sea change: a strong and noticeable change in a situation. E.g. It was one of those momentous events that cause a sea change in public attitudes. 


19. foot

set foot in/on something: to enter or visit a place. E.g. the first man to set foot on the moon. I vowed never to set foot in the place again.


20. pressed
hard-pressed: hard-pressed to do something finding something very difficult to do. E.g. You would be hard-pressed to find a better secretary.


21. few
faltering: speaking in a way that shows you are not confident. E.g. his faltering voice.


22. such
prove: turn out to be. E.g. The opposition proved too strong for him. It was proving extremely difficult to establish the truth. Shares in the industry proved a poor investment. His lack of experience may prove a problem in a crisis. The promotion proved to be a turning point in his career. Their fears proved to be groundless.


23. considered


24. in
Ground: instruct (someone) thoroughly in a subject. E.g. Eva’s governess grounded her in Latin and Greek.


25. ahead
ahead of the pack more successful than those you are competing against. E.g. In terms of raising money, Joe Anderson is way ahead of the pack. Of all the software I've tested, this product is ahead of the pack.


26. economic
downturn: downturn (in something) a fall in the amount of business that is done; a time when the economy becomes weaker. E.g. the recent economic downturns. A downturn in sales/trade/business. The economic downturn of 2008/2009. A period of economic downturn.  


27. year

year on year (used especially when talking about figures, prices, etc.) each year, compared with the last year. E.g. Spending has increased year on year. A year-on-year increase in spending. The monthly year-on-year growth rates.

28. under

have something under your belt (informal) to have already achieved or obtained something. E.g. She already has a couple of good wins under her belt. He now has almost a year as minister under his belt.

29. world

the world is your oyster: there is no limit to the opportunities open to you. E.g. With talent like that, the world is her oyster.

30. words

be lost for words to be so surprised, confused, etc. that you do not know what to say. E.g. Chris was lost for words at Kathy's incredible rudeness.

PART TWO. WORD BUILDING.  For each blank space use the word in brackets to help you write a related word which fits the context. Make sure your spelling is clear and unambiguous. An example (0) has been done for you.

Objective Proficiency p 62. Photographic Cliché. Extra Word Formation Cloze

0. stimulate

1. expression

2. competitions 


3. environmental 

Somebody's pet hate: (British English) (North American English somebody's pet peeve) something that you particularly dislike.



4. continued 


5. basically


6. deemed
Deem: to have a particular opinion about something. Consider. E.g. The evening was deemed a great success. I deem it an honour to be invited. She deemed it prudent not to say anything. They would take any action deemed necessary.


7. powerful 


8. stimulating 
Merit: to do something to deserve praise, attention, etc. E.g. He claims that their success was not merited. The case does not merit further investigation.


9. photography 


10. innovative 


11. winning 


12. numerous 


13. hell-bent 
Hell-bent on something/on doing something: determined to do something even though the results may be bad. E.g. He seems hell-bent on drinking himself to death.  

Walk off with something: (informal) to win something easily.


14. Certainly 


15. seeing 


16. gifted 


17. innovators 


18. slavish 
Slavish:/ˈsleɪvɪʃ/ following or copying somebody/something exactly without having any original thought at all. Falto de originalidad. E.g. a slavish adherence to the rules. Slavish obedience. A slavish imitation of Hitchcock's films.


19. actively


20. stimulation 

PART THREE. MULTIPLE CHOICE CLOZE. Read the text below and choose the option that best corresponds to the blank.

Objective Proficiency p 17. Book (0) Review . Extra Multiple Choice Cloze

0.  A Review

1. D. altered

Alter: /ˈɔːltə(r)/ 1. to become different; to make somebody/something different. E.g. Prices did not alter significantly during 2007. He had altered so much I scarcely recognized him. He altered his appearance with plastic surgery. Alter somebody/ something E.g. It doesn't alter the way I feel. Nothing can alter the fact that we are to blame. The landscape has been radically altered, severely damaging wildlife. This incident altered the whole course of events. Weather alters plans for beach goers 2. to make changes to a piece of clothing so that it will fit you better. E.g. We can have the dress altered to fit you.

Adjust: /əˈdʒʌst/ 1. to change something slightly to make it more suitable for a new set of conditions or to make it work better. E.g. adjust something Watch out for sharp bends and adjust your speed accordingly. This button is for adjusting the volume.The brakes need to be adjusted. Adjust something to something Adjust your language to the age of your audience. 2. to get used to a new situation by changing the way you behave and/or think. Adapt. E.g. They'll be fine—they just need time to adjust. Adjust to something After a while his eyes adjusted to the dark. Adjust to doing something It took her a while to adjust to living alone. It can be difficult to adjust to being a parent. Adjust yourself to something You'll quickly adjust yourself to student life. My eyes were still trying to adjust themselves to the strong sunlight. 3. Adjust something to move something slightly so that it looks neater or feels more comfortable. E.g. He smoothed his hair and adjusted his tie. Adjust the height of the chair so that your forearms will be horizontal while typing.

Shift: 1. to move, or move something, from one position or place to another. E.g. Lydia shifted uncomfortably in her chair. Shift (from…) (to…) The action of the novel shifts from Paris to London. Shift something Could you help me shift some furniture? Shift something (from…) (to…) He shifted his gaze from the child to her.She shifted her weight from one foot to the other. 2. (Of a situation, an opinion, a policy etc.) to change from one state, position, etc. to another. E.g. Public attitudes towards marriage have shifted over the past 50 years. Government policy has already shifted subtly (/ˈsʌtli/ not very noticeable or obvious). Shift (from…) (to/towards/toward…) The balance of power shifted away from workers towards employers. Her sympathies gradually shifted to the side of the protesters. 3. To change your opinion of or attitude towards something, or change the way that you do something. E.g. Shift something We need to shift the focus of this debate. Shift something (from…) (to/towards/toward…) The new policy shifted the emphasis away from fighting inflation. 4. Shift responsibility/blame (for something) (onto somebody) to make somebody else responsible for something you should do or something bad that you have done. E.g. He tried to shift the blame for his mistakes onto his colleagues.

Switch: 1. to change or make something change from one thing to another. E.g. switch (over) (from something) (to something) We're in the process of switching over to a new system of invoicing. We will have to switch over to a new currency. Switch between A and B Press these two keys to switch between documents on screen. Switch something (over) (from something) (to something) The meeting has been switched to next week. When did you switch jobs? We don't talk about any sex-related topics at home and my parents will switch TV channels if there are any sex or even kiss scenes2. To exchange one thing for another. Swap. E.g. switch something The dates of the last two exams have been switched. Switch something over/around/round I see you've switched the furniture around (= changed its position). Switch something with something Do you think she'll notice if I switch my glass with hers? He switched sides just days before the election.

2. A fulfil 


3.         D hand


4.         A label


5.         C Whilst


6.         B done


7.         A getting
up close and personal adv 1. intimately: he got to know the prime minister up close andpersonal. adj (up-close-and-personal when prenominal) 2. intimate: up-close-and-personal interaction.


8.         B come
            come close (to something/to doing something): to almost reach or do something. E.g. He'd come close to death. We didn't win but we came close. The welfare state never came close to eliminating poverty.

9.         B point
            plus point: an advantage or positive characteristic. E.g. "A plus point for families is the nearby retail park (a shopping area on the edge of a town or city, where there are several large stores).", "I suppose a plus point is that I'm just about the only bloke in the show.", "There are plenty of plus points about being an older first-time mum."

minus point: used for describing a disadvantage or negative quality of something. E.g. a minus point/factor: One of the minus points was the risk of getting caught.

10.      A punctuated
            punctuate:   /ˈpʌŋktʃueɪt/punctuate something (with something) to interrupt something at intervals. E.g.  Her speech was punctuated by bursts of applause. He punctuates his conversation with snatches of song.
            interpolate   : 1. interpolate something to make a remark that interrupts a conversation. Interject. E.g. ‘But why?’ he interpolated. 2. interpolate something (into something) to add something to a piece of writing. Insert. E.g. The lines were interpolated into the manuscript at a later date.
            interject: interject (something) (formal) to interrupt what somebody is saying with your opinion or a remark. E.g. ‘You're wrong,’ interjected Susan.



11.      B succeeds

12.      C forms
            life form: a living thing such as a plant or an animal. E.g.intelligent life forms in other solar systems.

13.      A complete 
complete with something [not before noun] including something as an extra part or feature. E.g. The furniture comes complete with tools and instructions for assembly. The book, complete with CD, costs £35.

gazetteer /ˌɡæzəˈtɪə(r)/ a list of place names published as a book or at the end of a book. Sp. diccionario geográfico.


14.      C merely
            The other words don't express the idea of "just" in this context.


15.      D source 

PART FOUR. GAPPED SENTENCES. Think of ONE word only that can be used appropriately in all three sentences of each exercise. An example (0) has been done for you.
0. safe

1. passage
a. a short section from a book, piece of music, etc. Excerpt, extract. E.g. Read the following passage and answer the questions below.
b. the action of going across, through or past something. E.g. Large trees may obstruct the passage of light.
c. a long narrow area with walls on either side that connects one room or place with another. Corridor. E.g. A dark narrow passage led to the main hall. A secret underground passage

2. run
a. run something to print and publish an item or a story. E.g. On advice from their lawyers they decided not to run the story.
b. run somebody + adv./prep. (informal) to drive somebody to a place in a car. E.g. Shall I run you home?
c. to operate or function; to make something do this. E.g. Could you run the engine for a moment? Our van runs on (= uses) diesel.

3. lies
a. + adv./prep. (of a town, natural feature, etc.) to be located in a particular place. E.g. The town lies on the coast.
b. lie ahead/in store: to be going to happen to somebody in the future. E.g. You are young and your whole life lies ahead of you. She didn’t know what lay in store.
c. lie with somebody (to do something) (formal) to be somebody’s duty or responsibility. E.g. It lies with you to accept or reject the proposals.

4. report
a. to give people information about something that you have heard, seen, done, etc. E.g. The committee will report on its research next month.
b. report (to somebody/something) (for something) to tell somebody that you have arrived, for example for work or for a meeting with somebody. E.g. You should report for duty at 9.30 a.m. All visitors must report to the reception desk on arrival.
c. to present a written or spoken account of an event in a newspaper, on television, etc. E.g. She reports on royal stories for the BBC.

5. easily
a. easily the best, nicest, etc. without doubt; definitely. E.g. It's easily the best play I've seen this year. She is easily the most experienced teacher in the school.
b. without problems or difficulty. E.g. I can easily finish it tonight.
c. fit in: to live, work, etc. in an easy and natural way with somebody/something. E.g. He's never done this type of work before; I'm not sure how he'll fit in with the other people.

PART FIVE. KEY WORD TRANSFORMATIONS. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given.

0. "I am sorry I didn't ring you to say I'd be late."
He _apologised for not ringing (having rung) to say he'd___ be late.
1. She had to persuade him not to quit his job.
She had to talk him out of quitting his job.
talk someone out of something:  to convince someone to give up or change something. E.g. They were trying to talk me out of my decision. Timmy tried to talk Mary out of her ice cream cone. I wish I'd known she was taking the drug, I would have tried to talk her out of it.

2. Differences in ages partly explain the differences in achievement between the pupils.
The differences in achievement between the pupils are partly accounted for by differences in age.
account for something: to be the explanation or cause of something. Explain. E.g. The poor weather may have accounted for the small crowd.

3. He would never allow his team mates to argue with the referee.
At no time would he allow his team mates to argue with the referee.

4. The prison officers were making the prisoners dig holes and fill them up again.
The prisoners were being made to dig holes and fill them up again by the prison officers.

5. It was too hot for me to be able to concentrate and do the exam properly.
It was so hot (that) I was unable to concentrate and do the exam properly.

6. She passed the word around that she was looking for a flat.
She _let it be known that she__ was looking for a flat.

7. Although he was tired, he agreed to play tennis.
Tired _though he was, he agreed to _ play tennis.

8. "I never told anyone about your scheme," he told me.
He_ denied telling (having told) anyone about my/our_ scheme.

9. It was wrong of you to scare your mother like that.
You _oughtn't/ ought not to have scared your_ mother like that.

10. He's likely to leave before the letter arrives.
By _the time the letter arrives, he's likely to have (or he'll probably have)___ left.

11. The window cleaners haven't called for at least six months.
The__ last time the window cleaners called was at least six months___ ago.

12. "Where on earth have you been all this time?"
She __demanded to know where on earth I/we/he/she/they had been all that __time

13. The suitcase was extremely heavy but he managed to lift it easily.
Despite _the (heavy) weight of the suitcase, he managed to lift it___ easily

14. He is said to be a very hard bargainer.
He _has the reputation of (being)/ a reputation as a very _ hard bargainer /ˈbɑːɡənə/

15. He didn't think about leaving his family until they were ready to depart.
Not _until they were ready to depart did he think about leaving __ his family.

16. As soon as we left the tent, it collapsed.
No___ sooner had we left the tent than it_______ collapsed.

17. They did not consider giving up the expedition at any point.
At _no point did they consider giving up__ the expedition.

18. As I intended to expand my shop, I made an offer for the premises next door.
I made an offer__ for the premises next door with a view to expanding__ my shop

with a view to something/to doing something

(formal) with the intention or hope of doing something. E.g. He's painting the house with a view to selling it.

in view of something

(formal) considering something. E.g. In view of the weather, the event will now be held indoors.

19. The prisoner was recaptured as he rushed towards the gate.
The prisoner __ was recaptured as he made a dash for the ___ gate.

a dash (for something): an act of going somewhere suddenly and/or quickly. E.g. He jumped off the bus and made a dash for the nearest bar.

to dash: to go somewhere very quickly. Rush. E.g. He dashed along the platform and jumped on the train. (You would need the past tense "dashed" to be able to use the verb)

20. Since the company's methods were exposed in a newspaper, people have lost their good opinion of it.
Since the company's methods__ were exposed in a newspaper, it has fallen into __ disrepute
disrepute: /ˌdɪsrɪˈpjuːt/ the fact that somebody/something loses the respect of other people. E.g. The old system had fallen into disrepute. The players' behaviour on the field is likely to bring the game into disrepute. The president brought his office into disrepute and betrayed the people's trust.