Interesting Vocabulary for C2

Messrs: /ˈmesəz/
(used as the plural of ‘Mr’ before a list of names and before names of business companies) Messrs Smith, Brown and Jones. Messrs T Brown and Co. Messrs Wood and Laurence, solicitors.

distraught: /dɪˈstrɔːt/ extremely upset and anxious so that you cannot think clearly. E.g. She’s still too distraught to speak about the tragedy. The child’s distraught parents pleaded for witnesses to contact the police.The woman was found in a reportedly distraught state by a couple in the street outside the scene of the alleged crime.

pack: a group of animals that hunt together or are kept for hunting. E.g. packs of savage dogs. wolves hunting in packs. a pack of hounds. wolf pack.
a trip/walk down memory lane
time that you spend thinking about and remembering the past or going to a place again in order to remind yourself of past experiences. E.g. Visiting my old school was a real trip down memory lane.


that should make you feel ashamed. E.g. shameful behaviour. It was shameful the way she was treated. There is nothing shameful about being poor.

causing somebody to feel ashamed. E.g. a shaming defeat by a less experienced team 
/ˌɪɡnəˈmɪniəs/ that makes, or should make, you feel ashamed. E.g.  an ignominious defeat. He made one mistake and his career came to an ignominious end. an ignominious failure/retreat.

disgraceful:  very bad or unacceptable; that people should feel ashamed about. E.g.  His behaviour was absolutely disgraceful! It's disgraceful that none of the family tried to help her. a disgraceful waste of money.

/ʌnˈkɒnʃənəbl/ (of an action, etc.) so bad, immoral, etc. that it should make you feel ashamed. E.g. It would be unconscionable for her to keep the money. To make people feel shame or guilt for being ill is unconscionable. This unconscionable policy will cause great suffering.
/ˈɔːkwəd/ making you feel embarrassed. E.g. There was an awkward silence. I felt awkward because they obviously wanted to be alone.

/əˈbæʃt/ embarrassed and ashamed because of something that you have done. E.g. He glanced at Juliet accusingly and she looked suitably abashed.

/ˈbæʃfl/ shy and easily embarrassed. E.g. He was too bashful to talk about sex. She looked bashful when he asked her what she wanted. When we asked her if she had a boyfriend, she came over all bashful and wouldn’t say a thing. 

 blush: to become red in the face because you are embarrassed or ashamed. E.g. blush (with something) (at something) to blush with embarrassment/shame. She blushed furiously at the memory of the conversation. He looked away, blushing. + adj./noun He blushed scarlet at the thought. 

flush: (of a person or their face) to become red, especially because you are embarrassed, angry or hot. E.g. She flushed with anger. Sam felt her cheeks flush red. flush something A rosy blush flushed her cheeks. 

go red
(of the face) bright red or pink, especially because you are angry, embarrassed or ashamed. E.g. He stammered something and went very red in the face. (British English) She went red as a beetroot. (North American English) She went red as a beet
 with a red face, especially because you are embarrassed or angry. E.g. A red-faced Mr Jones was led away by police. The band were left red-faced with embarrassment.

cringey: also cringy
/ˈkrɪn.dʒi/ embarrassing or making you feel uncomfortable. E.g. It was a bit cringey when he got her name wrong. cringy old school photos

to feel very embarrassed and uncomfortable about something. E.g. I cringe when I think of the poems I wrote then. She felt herself cringe with embarrassment at the memory. The very idea made him cringe inside.

cringeworthy: (also cringe-making)  
making you feel embarrassed or uncomfortable. E.g. It was a cringeworthy performance from start to finish.

to make somebody feel very ashamed or embarrassed. E.g. She was mortified to realize he had heard every word she said. I was mortified when I realized I had forgotten our lunch date. 
discomfit somebody 
discomfit somebody 

 /dɪsˈkʌmfɪt/ to make somebody feel confused or embarrassed. E.g. He was not noticeably discomfited by the request. 

tease (somebody)
to laugh at somebody and make jokes about them, either in a friendly way or in order to annoy or embarrass them. E.g.  Don't get upset—I was only teasing. I used to get teased about my name. 

make a monkey (out) of somebody
to make somebody seem stupid. E.g. They made a monkey out of him.

have/be left with egg on/all over your face
(informal) to be made to look stupid. E.g. They were left with egg on their faces when only ten people showed up.

blot your copybook  
to do something to spoil the opinion that other people have of you. E.g. The local councillor blotted his copy book when it came to light that he had accepted bribes to allow unregulated development projects to go ahead. I really blotted my copy book when I spilled my drink on the visiting dignitary last night.  You can also say that there is a blot on your copybook. E.g. In fact, just about the only blot on his copybook so far was a missed penalty against Arsenal 10 days ago. Note: In the past, schoolchildren had `copybooks'. These were books of examples of handwriting, with spaces for the children to copy it.

a hangdog look/ expression
if a person has a hangdog look, they look sad or ashamed especially because of feeling guilty.

feeling or looking ashamed because you have done something bad or stupid. E.g. a shamefaced smile. She looked shamefaced. a shamefaced explanation.

/ˈʃiːpɪʃ/ looking or feeling embarrassed because you have done something silly or wrong. E.g.
Mary gave her a sheepish grin. He came into the room looking distinctly sheepish. They were obviously a little bit sheepish about the misunderstanding.
live something down: to be able to make people forget about something embarrassing you have done. E.g. She felt so stupid. She'd never be able to live it down. 
clear your name: to prove that someone did not do something that they were accused of. E.g. The men say they have been falsely accused and are determined to clear their names.
gorge: a deep narrow valley with steep sides. Canyon. E.g. the Rhine Gorge.

far-fetched: very difficult to believe. E.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.
unicorn: /ˈjuːnɪkɔːn/
(in stories) an animal like a white horse with a long straight horn on its head. E.g. The national animal of England is the lion whereas the unicorn became the national animal of Scotland because it is invincible /ɪnˈvɪnsəbl/.

thistle: a wild plant with leaves with sharp points and purple, yellow or white flowers made up of a mass of narrow petals pointing upwards. The thistle is the national symbol of Scotland.

a Scottish dish that looks like a large round sausage made from the heart, lungs and liver of a sheep that are finely chopped, mixed with oats, herbs, etc. and boiled in a bag that is traditionally made from part of a sheep’s stomach (the lining of the sheep's stomach)

the covering of the inner surface of a part of the body. E.g. the stomach lining. the lining of the womb.

auld lang syne: /ˌɔːld læŋ ˈsaɪn/ (old long time)
is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1788. He also wrote the famous line "My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose". Auld lang syne is an old Scottish song which expresses feelings of friendship, and is traditionally sung at midnight on New Year’s Eve (Hogmanay /ˈhɒɡməneɪ/).
It may be translated into standard English as "old long since", or more idiomatically, "long long ago", "days gone by" or "old times". Consequently, "For auld lang syne", as it appears in the first line of the chorus, might be loosely translated as "for (the sake of) old times".

Aye: /aɪ/
1. yes. E.g. ‘Did you see what happened?’ ‘Oh aye, I was there.’
2. Always or still. ‘I've aye fancied seeing Edinburgh’
3. for aye Forever.‘I shall treasure the memory for aye’.
bonny (also bonnie)
1. Attractive or beautiful. E.g. ‘a bonny lass/ girl/ woman/ bride’
wee: /wiː/
1. very small in size. E.g. a wee girl.
2. small in amount; little. E.g. Just a wee drop of milk for me. I felt a wee bit guilty about it. A wee chat. A wee holiday.

endearment: a word or an expression that is used to show affection. E.g. They were whispering endearments to each other. ‘Darling’ is a term of endearment.

yer: non-standard spelling of your, used in representing dialectal speech. E.g. drink yer tea.

1. /ˈɡælɪk/ /ˈɡeɪlɪk/ in or connected with the Celtic language of Scotland.
2. /ˈɡeɪlɪk/ (also Irish Gaelic) in or connected with the Celtic language of Ireland

voice/speech recognition technology:
technology that allows a computer to understand spoken words.

Aberdonian: /ˌæbəˈdəʊniən/
1. (adj) from Aberdeen in Scotland.
2. (n) a person from Aberdeen in Scotland

Glaswegian: /ɡlæzˈwiːdʒən/
1. (adj) from or connected with Glasgow in Scotland.
2. (N) a person from Glasgow in Scotland.

Edinburgher: /edinˈbɜːɡə(r)/
a person from Edinburgh

sporran: /ˈspɒrən/
a flat bag, usually made of leather or fur, that is worn by men in front of the kilt as part of the Scottish national dress.

curling: /ˈkɜːlɪŋ/
a game played on ice, in which players slide heavy flat stones towards a mark.

shinty: /ˈʃɪnti/
a Scottish game similar to hockey, played with curved sticks by teams of twelve players.

tug of war /ˌtʌɡ əv ˈwɔː(r)/
1. a sporting event in which two teams pull at opposite ends of a rope until one team drags the other over a line on the ground.
2. a situation in which two people or groups try very hard to get or keep the same thing. E.g. After the divorce they became involved in an emotional tug of war over the children.

spirits [plural] a person’s feelings or state of mind. E.g. to be in high/low spirits. You must try and keep your spirits up (= stay cheerful). My spirits sank at the prospect of starting all over again. This nurse raises the spirits of the patients (i.e. gives vigour /ˈvɪɡə(r)// vitality /vaɪˈtæləti/).
swoon /swuːn/
1. swoon (over somebody) /swuːn/ to feel very excited, emotional, etc. about somebody that you think is sexually attractive, so that you almost become unconscious. E.g. He's used to having women swooning over him.
2. to become unconscious. Faint. E.g. Gertrude swoons to see Hamlet bleed.

hubris: /ˈhjuːbrɪs/
the fact of somebody being too proud. In literature, a character with this pride ignores warnings and laws and this usually results in their downfall and death. E.g. He thought he was above the law and was ultimately punished for his hubris. Scientists may arguably be guilty of hubris in this area. There is no safety in unlimited technological hubris (McGeorge Bundy).

overbearing: /ˌəʊvəˈbeərɪŋ/
trying to control other people in an unpleasant way. Domineering. E.g. an overbearing parent. an overbearing manner. She found him rude and overbearing. I wasn’t the least impressed or intimidated by her overbearing attitude.

trivialize: (also trivialise) /ˈtrɪviəlaɪz/
trivialize something (usually disapproving) to make something seem less important, serious, difficult, etc. than it really is. E.g. It is important not to trivialize children’s worries. The magazine has been accused of trivializing serious issues.

erstwhile: /ˈɜːstwaɪl/
former; that until recently was the type of person or thing described but is not any more. E.g. an erstwhile opponent. His erstwhile friends turned against him. An erstwhile leader.

bite the bullet(informal) to start to deal with an unpleasant or difficult situation which cannot be avoided. E.g. I wasn’t happy with the way my career was going so I decided to bite the bullet and look for another job. (From the custom of giving soldiers a bullet to bite on during a medical operation without anaesthetic).

bite the dust
1. to fail, or to be defeated or destroyed.  E.g. Thousands of small businesses bite the dust every year.
2. (humorous) to die. E.g. another one bites the dust.

bite the hand that feeds you to harm somebody who has helped you or supported you.

bite/snap somebody’s head off(informal) to shout at somebody in an angry way, especially without reason.

bite your lip to stop yourself from saying something or from showing an emotion.

bite off more than you can chew
to try to do too much, or something that is too difficult

bite your tongue to stop yourself from saying something that might upset somebody or cause an argument, although you want to speak. E.g. I didn't believe her explanation but I bit my tongue.

the hair of the dog (that bit you)(informal) alcohol that you drink in order to make you feel better when you have drunk too much alcohol the night before

once bitten, twice shy(saying) after an unpleasant experience you are careful to avoid something similar.

sway somebody
to persuade somebody to believe something or do something. Influence. E.g.  He's easily swayed. She wasn't swayed by his good looks or his clever talk.. He was swayed by public opinion.

1. if something bad or unpleasant is rife in a place, it is very common there. Widespread. E.g.  It is a country where corruption is rife. Rumours are rife that he is going to resign. Poverty was rife.
2. rife (with something) full of something bad or unpleasant Los Angeles is rife with gossip about the stars' private lives.

hunt where the ducks are:
To pursue or look for one's objectives, results, or goals in the place where one is most likely to find them. E.g. If you're looking to expand your customer base, you need to identify who would benefit from your business the most and then hunt where the ducks are.

livid: extremely angry. Furious. E.g. Dad will be livid when he finds out.

envisage: /ɪnˈvɪzɪdʒ/
to imagine what will happen in the future. E.g. envisage something What level of profit do you envisage? envisage (somebody) doing something I can't envisage her coping with this job. I don’t envisage working with him again. it is envisaged that… It is envisaged that the talks will take place in the spring. envisage that… I envisage that the work will be completed next year. envisage how, where, etc… It is difficult to envisage how people will react.

notwithstanding: /ˌnɒtwɪθˈstændɪŋ/ (also used following the noun it refers to) without being affected by something; despite something. E.g. Notwithstanding some major financial problems, the school has had a successful year. The bad weather notwithstanding, the event was a great success.

odds and ends: small items that are not valuable or are not part of a larger set. E.g. She spent the day sorting through a box full of odds and ends. I've got a few odds and ends (= small jobs) to do before leaving. small miscellaneous items Sp. chismes. E.g. My desk drawer contains lots of odds and ends. Sp. Mi cajón está lleno de chismes.

concoction: /kənˈkɒkʃn/ a strange or unusual mixture of things, especially drinks or medicines. E.g. a concoction of cream and rum. He gave me some of his herbal concoction when I had toothache.
envisage: /ɪnˈvɪzɪdʒ/
to imagine what will happen in the future. E.g. envisage something What level of profit do you envisage? envisage (somebody) doing something I can't envisage her coping with this job. I don’t envisage working with him again. it is envisaged that… It is envisaged that the talks will take place in the spring. envisage that… I envisage that the work will be completed next year. envisage how, where, etc… It is difficult to envisage how people will react.

notwithstanding: /ˌnɒtwɪθˈstændɪŋ/ (also used following the noun it refers to) without being affected by something; despite something. E.g. Notwithstanding some major financial problems, the school has had a successful year. The bad weather notwithstanding, the event was a great success.

odds and ends: small items that are not valuable or are not part of a larger set. E.g. She spent the day sorting through a box full of odds and ends. I've got a few odds and ends (= small jobs) to do before leaving. small miscellaneous items Sp. chismes. E.g. My desk drawer contains lots of odds and ends. Sp. Mi cajón está lleno de chismes.

concoction: /kənˈkɒkʃn/ a strange or unusual mixture of things, especially drinks or medicines. E.g. a concoction of cream and rum. He gave me some of his herbal concoction when I had toothache.
bring the house down:
to make everyone laugh or cheer, especially at a performance in the theatre.

schmaltz: /ʃmɔːlts/
the quality of being too sentimental. E.g. At the end of the movie we drown in a sea of schmaltz.

schmaltzy: /ˈʃmɔːltsi/ Causing extreme emotions of love or sadness, esp. in the arts. E.g.They spend a lot of time together listening to schmaltzy love songs.

1. shackle somebody to put shackles on somebody. E.g. The hostage had been shackled to a radiator. The prisoners were kept shackled during the trial.
2. shackle somebody/something to prevent somebody from behaving or speaking as they want. If you are shackled by something, it prevents you from doing what you want to do. E.g. She is opposed to shackling the press with privacy laws. The country is shackled by its own debts.

play ball (with somebody):
1. to play with a ball. E.g. Chris was in the park playing ball with the kids.
2. to be willing to work with other people in a helpful way, especially so that somebody can get what they want. to agree to work with or help someone in the way they have suggested. E.g. We contacted the airline about a refund but they wouldn’t play ball. The family wanted him to be taken care of at home, but the insurance company refused to play ball.

geezer: /ˈɡiːzə(r)/
a man. E.g. Some geezer called Danny did it.

Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. It is one of the world's largest producers of maps.

A to Z: /ˌeɪ tə ˈzed/
1. a book containing street maps of all the areas of a large city.

2. a book containing all the information you need about a subject or place. E.g. an A to Z of needlework.

lap something up: to accept or receive something with great enjoyment, without thinking about whether it is good, true or sincere. E.g. It's a terrible movie but audiences everywhere are lapping it up. She simply lapped up all the compliments.

jog somebody’s memory
to say or do something that makes somebody remember something. E.g. Maybe these letters will help to jog your memory.

sunstroke: [uncountable] an illness with fever, weakness, headache, etc. caused by too much direct sun, especially on the head. Sp. insolación. E.g. The children were at risk of sunstroke since they spent the whole day at the beach. Someone who is suffering from sunstroke feels dizzy and has a high temperature, but does not sweat.

a loud kiss. E.g. She gave me a smacker on the cheek.

punch: to hit somebody/something hard with your fist. E.g. You couldn't punch your way out of a wet paper bag.

wind-up: /ˈwaɪnd ʌp/
something that somebody says or does in order to be deliberately annoying, especially as a joke. E.g. Is this a wind-up?

wind somebody up
(British English, informal) to deliberately say or do something in order to annoy somebody. E.g. Calm down! Can't you see he's only winding you up? That can't be true! You're winding me up.

a fully grown male horse, especially one that is used for breeding.

/meə(r)/  a female horse or donkey

colt: /kəʊlt/

titbit: /ˈtɪtbɪt/
1. a small special piece of food. Morsel. E.g. She had saved a few titbits for her cat.
2. a small but interesting piece of news. Snipped. E.g. titbits of gossip.

open and without shame, usually about something that people find shocking. Shameless. E.g. She had become brazen about the whole affair. his brazen admission that he was cheating. She’s known for her own brand of brazen sexuality. There were several instances of brazen cheating.

ascent: /əˈsent/ the act of climbing or moving up; an upward journey. E.g. the first ascent of Mount Everest. The cart began its gradual ascent up the hill. The rocket steepened its ascent. Opp.

descent /dɪˈsent/.

ascend: (V) /əˈsend/ E.g. The air became colder as we ascended.

descend: (V) /dɪˈsend/ E.g. The plane began to descend.

viper: /ˈvaɪpə(r)/
1. a small poisonous snake.
2. a person who harms other people
ad lib (N) /ˌæd ˈlɪb/
something that you say in a speech or a performance that you have not prepared or practised. E.g. The speech was full of ad libs.

ad lib (adjective)
an ad lib speech or performance has not been prepared or practised.

ad lib (adverb)
if you give a speech or performance ad lib, you do it without preparing or practising.
E.g. She delivered her lines ad lib.

wake up and smell the coffee
(informal) (usually in orders) used to tell somebody to become aware of what is really happening in a situation, especially when this is something unpleasant.

hamstring: one of the five tendons behind the knee that connect the muscles of the upper leg to the bones of the lower leg. E.g. a hamstring injury She's pulled a hamstring.Sp. tendón de la corva, músculos isquiotibiales.

hamstring somebody/something (hamstrung, hamstrung)to prevent somebody/something from working or taking action in the way that is needed. Sp . paralizar. Incapacitar. E.g. we were hamstrung by a total lack of knowledge.

make eyes at somebody, give somebody the eye
to look at somebody in a way that shows that you find them sexually attractive. E.g. He's definitely giving you the eye!
1. override something
to use your authority to reject somebody’s decision, order, etc. Overrule. E.g. The chairman overrode the committee's objections and signed the agreement.
2. override something to be more important than something Considerations of safety override all other concerns.
washed up: /ˌwɒʃt ˈʌp/
no longer successful and unlikely to succeed again in the future. E.g. Her singing career was all washed up by the time she was 27. A washed-up Hollywood screenwriter takes a job at a small university.

1. a person or thing that you treat like a toy, without really caring about them or it. E.g. She was an intelligent woman who refused to be a rich man's plaything.
2. (old-fashioned) a toy. E.g. The teddy bear was his favourite plaything.

[uncountable] (formal or literary) angry or violent disagreement between two people or groups of people. Conflict. E.g. civil strife. The country was torn apart by strife. Internecine strife among the nationalities of the empire

Internecine /ˌɪntəˈniːsaɪn/ happening between members of the same group, country or organization. Sp .interno. E.g. internecine struggles/ warfare/ feuds.

antics: /ˈæntɪks/
1. behaviour which is silly and funny in a way that people usually like. E.g. The bank staff got up to all sorts of antics to raise money for charity. a comic who performs wacky antics on his TV show
2. behaviour which is ridiculous or dangerous. E.g. The driver contacted police to ask for a photograph of his antics, after he had admitted driving over the speed limit.

Ouija board™: /ˈwiːdʒə bɔːd/
a board marked with letters of the alphabet and other signs, used in seances to receive messages said to come from people who are dead.

seance: /ˈseɪɒ̃s/ a meeting at which people try to make contact with and talk to the spirits of dead people.

pastures [plural] the circumstances of your life, work, etc. E.g. I felt we were off to greener pastures (= a better way of life). (British English) She decided it was time to move on to pastures new (= a new job, place to live, etc.).

nip something in the bud
to stop something when it has just begun because you can see that problems will come from it.

prolific: /prəˈlɪfɪk/ (of an artist, a writer, etc.) producing many works, etc. E.g. a prolific author. a prolific goalscorer. one of the most prolific periods in her career. Picasso was extremely prolific during his Cubist years. Few composers can match his prolific output.

freak: (of an event or the weather) very unusual and unexpected. E.g. a freak accident/storm/occurrence. freak weather conditions.

ferocious: /fəˈrəʊʃəs/ very aggressive or violent; very strong. E.g. a ferocious beast/attack/storm. a man driven by ferocious determination. ferocious opposition to the plan.

erratic: /ɪˈrætɪk/ not happening at regular times; not following any plan or regular pattern; that you cannot rely.  unpredictable. E.g. The electricity supply here is quite erratic. She had learnt to live with his sudden changes of mood and erratic behaviour. Mary is a gifted but erratic player (= she does not always play well). Irrigation measures will be necessary in areas of erratic rainfall. their increasingly erratic policy decisions.

1. containing a lot of juice and good to eat. E.g. soft juicy pears. The meat was tender and juicy. The birds come searching for juicy worms and grubs.
2. interesting because you find it shocking or exciting. E.g. juicy gossip. She told me all the juicy details/bits.
3. attractive because it will bring you a lot of money or satisfaction.
E.g. a juicy prize.
glimmer: /ˈɡlɪmə(r)/
1. a faint unsteady light. E.g. We could see a glimmer of light on the far shore.
2. (also glimmering) a small sign of something. E.g. a glimmer of hope. I caught the glimmer of a smile in his eyes. the glimmering of an idea.

containing informal talk or stories about other people's private lives, that may be unkind or not true. E.g. a gossipy letter
2. enjoying talking about other people's private lives. E.g. a gossipy neighbour.

undertone (of something) a feeling, quality or meaning that is not expressed directly but is still noticeable from what somebody says or does. Sp. matiz, trasfondo. E.g. His soft words contained an undertone of warning. The play does not have the political undertones of the novel. We try to avoid religious undertones.

rub shoulders with somebody (North American English also rub elbows with somebody)
to meet and spend time with a famous person, socially or as part of your job. E.g. He’s rubbing shoulders with stars all the time.

hobnob (with somebody) (informal) to spend a lot of time with somebody, especially somebody who is rich and/or famous. E.g. He was often seen hobnobbing with influential business people.

watch makers

the latest iphone

mother-of-pearl: /ˌmʌðər əv ˈpɜːl/ the hard smooth shiny substance in various colours that forms a layer inside the shells of some types of shellfish and is used in making buttons, decorative objects, etc. Sp. nácar.

iridescent: /ˌɪrɪˈdesnt/ showing many bright colours that seem to change in different lights. E.g. a bird with iridescent blue feathers.


in awe of somebody
look up to somebody

empty nest
a parent whose children have grown up and left home.

difficult/hard/ tough act to follow:
a person who is so good or successful at something that it will be difficult for anyone else coming after them to be as good or successful. E.g. She has been an excellent principal and will be a hard act to follow.

steal somebody’s thunder
to get the attention, success, etc. that somebody else was expecting, usually by saying or doing what they had intended to say or do.

blunder a stupid or careless mistake. E.g. to make a terrible blunder. a series of political blunders.

TINA: (there is no alternative) was a slogan often used by the Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. The phrase was used to signify Thatcher's claim that the market economy is the only system that works, and that debate about this is over. E.g. It's TINA.

1. turnover (of something) the total amount of goods or services sold by a company during a particular period of time. E.g. an annual turnover of $75 million. a fall in turnover
2. turnover (of somebody) the rate at which employees leave a company and are replaced by other people. E.g. a high turnover of staff.
3. turnover (of something) the rate at which goods are sold in a shop/store and replaced by others. E.g. a fast turnover of stock

trendsetter: /ˈtrendsetə(r)/ a person who starts a new fashion or makes it popular.

spearhead: /ˈspɪəhed/ (N) a person or group that begins an activity or leads an attack against somebody/something.

spearhead something to begin an activity or lead an attack against somebody/something. E.g. He is spearheading a campaign for a new stadium in the town.

paradigm shift: /ˈpærədaɪm ʃɪft/ a great and important change in the way something is done or thought about. E.g. Wegener’s theory led to a paradigm shift in the earth sciences. I could convince only a few of my colleagues of the need for a revolution, a paradigm shift.

a sea change
a sweeping change
a game changer
: a person, an idea or an event that completely changes the way a situation develops. E.g. The advent of the digital camera proved to be a game changer in the photography industry.

landmark: landmark (in something) an event, a discovery, an invention, etc. that marks an important stage in something. Milestone. E.g. The ceasefire was seen as a major landmark in the fight against terrorism. a landmark decision/ruling in the courts.
1. swipe (at) somebody/something
to hit or try to hit somebody/something with your hand or an object by swinging your arm He swiped at the ball and missed.
2. swipe something (informal) to steal something. Pinch, nick. E.g. They’re always swiping other kids’ sweets.
3. swipe something to pass a plastic card, such as a credit card, through a special machine that is able to read the information that is stored on it. E.g. The cash register only opens once the card has been swiped.
4. swipe (something) (on/across something) to move your finger quickly across the screen of an electronic device such as a mobile/cell phone or small computer in order to move text, pictures, etc. or give commands. E.g. Switch on the phone and swipe your finger across the screen to unlock it.

experienced: /ɪkˈspɪəriənst/ having knowledge or skill in a particular job or activity. E.g. an experienced teacher. experienced in something/in doing something He's very experienced in looking after animals.

The noun, youthquake, is defined as ‘a significant cultural, political, or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people’. E.g. ‘a youthquake has altered the Westminster landscape’ ‘couture is undergoing something of a youthquake.
at the eleventh hour

in the nick of time

in the nick (in prison)

couture: /kuˈtjʊə(r)/

the design and production of expensive and fashionable clothes; these clothes. E.g. a couture evening dress. The House of Mattli is expanding from couture into ready-to-wear.

be on to something:

Have an idea or information that is likely to lead to an important discovery. to have information that will help to you make an important discovery. E.g. I think you could be on to something here. Great work on this essay, Lindsay. I really think you're on to something here. Scientists now believe they may be on to a cure for cancer.

a bottomless pit (of something)
a thing or situation which seems to have no limits or seems never to end. E.g. There isn't a bottomless pit of money for public spending. the bottomless pit of his sorrow.

near: (prep)(also near to)

Near to is not usually used before the name of a place, person, festival, etc.
1. at a short distance away from somebody/something. E.g. Do you live near here? Go and sit nearer (to) the fire.
2. a short period of time from something. E.g. My birthday is very near Christmas. I’ll think about it nearer (to) the time(= when it is just going to happen).

legit: /lɪˈdʒɪt/
legal, or acting according to the law or the rules. E.g. The business seems legit.

hapless: not lucky; unfortunate. E.g. the hapless victims of exploitation. Often the hapless victims have no warning that the flood is on its way.

pound: a place where dogs that have been found in the street without their owners are kept until their owners claim them.

(of animals normally kept as pets) away from home and lost; having no home. E.g. stray dogs.

kennel (also kennels)
[countable + singular or plural verb] a place where people can leave their dogs to be taken care of when they go on holiday/vacation; a place where dogs are bred. E.g. We put the dog in kennels when we go away.

1. if metal tarnishes or something tarnishes it, it no longer looks bright and shiny. E.g. The mirrors had tarnished with age. tarnish something The silver candlesticks were tarnished and dusty.
2. tarnish something to spoil the good opinion people have of somebody/something. Taint. E.g. He hopes to improve the newspaper's somewhat tarnished public image. their severely tarnished reputation.

/bɪˈsmɜːtʃ/ somebody/something (formal) to damage the opinion that people have of somebody/something. Sully. E.g. He had deliberately set out to besmirch her reputation.
goofy: /ˈɡuːfi/
silly; stupid. E.g. a goofy grin. That was a real goofy thing to do. I like Jim, but he's a little goofy.

boisterous: /ˈbɔɪstərəs/
(of people, animals or behaviour) noisy and full of life and energy. E.g. It was a challenge, keeping ten boisterous seven-year-olds amused. The children and the dogs raced out of the house to give me a boisterous welcome. boisterous children. a boisterous game.

mother somebody/something
to care for somebody/something because you are their mother, or as if you were their mother. to treat a person with great kindness and love and to try to protect them from anything dangerous or difficult. E.g. He was a disturbed child who needed mothering. Stop mothering me! Stop mothering her - she's 40 years old and can take care of herself.

1. wither (something) if a plant withers or something withers it, it dries up and dies. E.g. The grass had withered in the warm sun.
2. wither (away) to become less or weaker, especially before disappearing completely. E.g. All our hopes just withered away.

1. wilt (something)
if a plant or flower wilts, or something wilts it, it bends towards the ground because of the heat or a lack of water. E.g. Cut flowers will soon wilt without water.
2. to become weak or tired or less confident. E.g. The spectators were wilting visibly in the hot sun. He was wilting under the pressure of work. After only an hour's hiking they were beginning to wilt in the heat.

1. to bend, hang or move downwards, especially because of being weak or tired. E.g. the drooping branches of the apple tree. She was so tired, her eyelids were beginning to droop. The plants were drooping from lack of water. The flowers were drooping in the heat. I can see you're tired because your eyelids have started to droop.
2. to become sad or depressed. If your spirits (= feelings of happiness) droop, you start to feel less happy and energetic. E.g.Our spirits drooped when we heard the news.
be a tall order
(informal) to be very difficult to do. E.g. Building the bridge in time for the Olympics will be a tall order.
gnawing: /ˈnɔːɪŋ/
making you feel worried over a period of time. E.g. gnawing doubts.

edgy: nervous, especially about what might happen. E.g. She's been very edgy lately. After the recent unrest there is an edgy calm in the capital. I’m feeling a bit edgy about the exam tomorrow.

to interrupt a public speech or performance with loud, unfriendly statements or questions. Sp. Interrumpir. E.g. A few angry locals started heckling (the speaker).

dishearten: to make a person lose confidence, hope, and energy. Sp. Desanimar. E.g. She was very disheartened by the results of the test. disheartening news.

discomfit somebody /dɪsˈkʌmfɪt/ (literary) to make somebody feel confused or embarrassed. Sp. trubar, desconcertar. E.g. He was not noticeably discomfited by the request. He realized that his remarks had succeeded in discomfiting her.
overhaul: an examination of a machine or system, including doing repairs on it or making changes to it. E.g. a complete/major overhaul. A radical overhaul of the tax system is necessary.

1. (North American English) (British English cot) a small bed with high sides for a baby or young child.
2. a long open box that horses and cows can eat from. Manger.
3. (British English) (North American English crèche /kreʃ/) a model of the scene of Jesus Christ’s birth, placed in churches and homes at Christmas

crèche /kreʃ/
1. (British English) a place where babies and small children are taken care of while their parents are working, studying, shopping, etc. E.g. Younger children can be left in the crèche.
2. (North American English) (British English crib) a model of the scene of Jesus Christ’s birth, placed in churches and homes at Christmas.

great-nephew: (also grand-nephew) A son of one's nephew or niece.

great-niece: (also grand-niece) A daughter of one's nephew or niece.
great-uncle: (also grand-uncle) An uncle of one's mother or father

great-aunt: (also grand-aunt) An aunt of one's father or mother.

potluck: /pɒtˈlʌk/
1. a meal to which each guest brings some food, which is then shared out among the guests. E.g. a potluck supper. My neighbours gather for Sunday potlucks. Instead of bringing food to the potluck, they take it home. a pot luck dinner. We're having a pot luck on Saturday.
2. anything that is available or is found by chance, rather than something chosen, planned, or prepared. E.g. We had no idea which hotel would be best, so we just took pot luck with the first one on the list. Mary's welcome to stay for dinner if she doesn't mind taking pot luck (= having whatever is available).
nougat: /ˈnuːɡɑː/ [uncountable] a hard sweet/candy that has to be chewed a lot, often containing nuts, cherries, etc. and pink or white in colour. A sweet made from sugar or honey, nuts, and egg white. Sp. turrón. E.g. ‘a box of nougat’.
bloated: full of food and feeling uncomfortable. E.g. I felt bloated after the huge meal they'd served.

cousin /ˈkʌzn/ (also first cousin)
second cousin: a child of a cousin of your mother or father.
1. (British English) (North American English pickle) a small cucumber that has been preserved in vinegar before being eaten. E.g. pickled gherkins.
2. (North American English) a small cucumber.

pickled: (of food) preserved in vinegar. E.g. pickled cabbage/herring/onions.

mashed potato: (also mashed potatoes, mash especially in British English) potatoes that have been boiled and crushed into a soft mass, often with butter and milk.

sea bass: E.g.The sea bass is a very well known fish for its meat. Sp. La lubina o róbalo es un pez muy apreciado por su carne.

gilt-head bream: E.g. The gilt-head bream is usually between 20 and 50 cm long. Sp. La medida de la dorada es de 20 a 50 cm.

hearty: /ˈhɑːti/
1. showing friendly feelings for somebody. E.g. a hearty welcome. The Colonel gave me a hearty handshake.
2. loud, cheerful and full of energy. E.g. a hearty and boisterous fellow. a hearty voice. Her laugh was far too hearty to be genuine.
3. (of a meal or somebody’s appetite) large; making you feel full. E.g. a hearty breakfast. to have a hearty appetite
4. [usually before noun] showing that you feel strongly about something. E.g. He nodded his head in hearty agreement. Hearty congratulations to everyone involved. a hearty dislike of something

hale and hearty
(especially of an old person) strong and healthy.
take a (hard, nasty, etc.) knock
to have an experience that makes somebody/something less confident or successful; to be damaged Industry in the area has taken a knock with the closure of two factories. Her confidence took a further knock when she lost her job.

hard-knock life: a life during which many bad things happen.

hard knocks:
The practical experiences of life, including hardships and disappointments. E.g. "He hadn't grown up in the school of hard knocks. Politically he had lived an easy life" (Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.).

the school of hard knocks: Painful or difficult experiences that are seen to be useful in teaching someone about life.

bookcase: a piece of furniture with shelves for keeping books on. E.g. I chose a book from the bookcase. I found this book in your bookcase.

coffee table: a small low table for putting magazines, cups, etc. on, usually in front of a sofa.

dilemma: /dɪˈlemə/ /daɪˈlemə/ a situation which makes problems, often one in which you have to make a very difficult choice between things of equal importance. Predicament. E.g. to face a dilemma. to be in a dilemma.

predicament: /prɪˈdɪkəmənt/ quandary. E.g. the club’s financial predicament. I'm in a terrible predicament.

quandery: /ˈkwɒndəri/ E.g. George was in a quandary—should he go or shouldn't he? This placed the government in something of a quandary.

1. a mixture of flour, fat and water or milk that is rolled out flat and baked as a base or covering for pies, etc.
2. a small cake made using pastry

puff pastry: a type of light pastry that forms many thin layers when baked, used for making pies, cakes, etc. Sp. hojaldre.

delinquent: /dɪˈlɪŋkwənt/ (N) a young person who shows a tendency to commit crimes. E.g. teenage delinquents.
delinquent: (adj) (especially of young people or their behaviour) showing a tendency to commit crimes. E.g. delinquent teenagers.

delinquency: /dɪˈlɪŋkwənsi/ bad or criminal behaviour, usually of young people. E.g. an increase in juvenile delinquency. The boys drift into minor delinquencies while hanging around the streets.

have seen/known better days
(humorous) to be in poor condition. E.g. Our car has seen better days!

dispossess somebody (of something) (formal) to take somebody’s property, land or house away from them. E.g. A lot of people were dispossessed of their homes during the civil war.

destitute: /ˈdestɪtjuːt/
1. without money, food and the other things necessary for life. Without money, food, a home, or possessions. E.g. When he died, his family was left completely destitute. The floods left thousands of people destitute.
2. the destitute noun [plural] people who are destitute.
3. destitute of something (formal) lacking something. E.g. They seem destitute of ordinary human feelings.

unceasingly: /ʌnˈsiːsɪŋli/ without stopping. Incessantly.  E.g. She talked unceasingly/ incessantly about the most trivial things.

siphon something  /ˈsaɪfn/
(also syphon) (+ adv./prep.) (informal) to remove money from one place and move it to another, especially dishonestly or illegally. E.g. She has been accused of siphoning off thousands of pounds from the company into her own bank account.
I would lose my head if it weren't screwed on/ attached.
not come/go amiss (British English) to be useful or pleasant in a particular situation. E.g. A little luck wouldn't go amiss right now!
toddy: a drink made with strong alcohol, sugar, hot water and sometimes spices.

polish: make something smooth and shiny by rubbing it

dispatcher: a person whose job is to send emergency vehicles to where they are needed. E.g. an Emergency Medical Dispatcher
1. bust something to break something. E.g. I bust my camera. The lights are busted. Come out, or I'll bust the door down!
2. bust somebody/something (for something) (of the police) to suddenly enter a place and search it or arrest somebody. E.g. He's been busted for drugs. He was busted for drunk driving. The cops busted the place frequently.
come around/round/ to: to become conscious again. E.g. Your mother hasn't yet come round from the anaesthetic.
touch and go: used to say that the result of a situation is uncertain and that there is a possibility that something bad or unpleasant will happen. E.g. She's fine now, but it was touch-and-go for a while (= there was a possibility that she might die). It was touch-and-go whether they'd allow him into the country or not.
drift apart: to become less friendly or close to somebody. E.g. As children we were very close, but as we grew up we just drifted apart.
touchy (about something) (of a person) easily upset or offended.  
irascible: /ɪˈræsəbl/ becoming angry very easily. Irritable. E.g. to be tired and irascible/ irritable 
precinct: /ˈpriːsɪŋkt/ a part of a city that has its own police station; the police station in this area. E.g. Detective Hennessy of the 44th precinct. The murder occurred just a block from the precinct.
hightail it (informal, especially North American English) to leave somewhere very quickly. E.g. They ran out of the gates and hightailed it up the road.
What do you know: used to express surprise
selfsame: exactly the same. E.g.‘he was standing in the selfsame spot you're filling now
brownstone: a house built of, or with a front made of, a type of reddish-brown stone, which is also called brownstone. E.g. New York brownstones
battered: old, used a lot, and not in very good condition. E.g. a battered old car.
have seen/known better days (humorous) to be in poor condition. E.g. Our car has seen better days!
come over: suddenly feel sth. If a feeling comes over you, it suddenly affects you in a strong way. E.g. A wave of anger came over him.
cut so a break: give so a break   
perpetrator: (also perp) a person who commits a crime or does something that is wrong or evil. E.g. the perpetrators of the crime. We will do everything in our power to bring the perpetrators to justice.
catch up (with sb) to reach somebody who is ahead by going faster. E.g. Go on ahead. I'll catch up with you. I'll catch you up.
keep your nose clean (informal) to avoid doing anything wrong or illegal. E.g. Since leaving prison, he's managed to keep his nose clean.
in the blink of an eye very quickly; in a short time
thaw out became more friendly
make to do something: If you make to do something, you are just going to do it when something interrupts you. E.g.I made to leave but she called me back
gut something to destroy the inside or contents of a building or room. E.g. a factory gutted by fire. The house was completely gutted. The hotel was completely gutted by fire last year.
mutter: to speak or say something in a quiet voice that is difficult to hear, especially because you are annoyed about something. E.g. ‘How dare she,’ he muttered under his breath.
murmur: to say something in a soft quiet voice that is difficult to hear or understand. E.g. She murmured her agreement. He murmured something in his sleep. She was murmuring in his ear.
big footsteps to follow: E.g. He had big footsteps to follow, but was up to the job. I am indebted to my brother Iohn for leaving me big footsteps to follow.
Jerry Zawacki had some big footsteps to follow in his high school football career at Uniontown High School, since his older brother Chuck was one of the best athletes.

big footsteps to fill
: E.g. there were thus big footsteps to fill when he became president in 1902. We have big footsteps to fill, but we'll do what has to be done. They are big footsteps to fill,” said local actress Gloria Costa when describing her role in the Algarveans Experimental Theatre Group's production of “Talking Heads” by famous British author Alan Bennett.

big shoes to fill/ follow: If that person was really good at their job, you might say that you "have some big shoes to fill/ follow". E.g. These are some big shoes to follow/fill

a hard/tough act to follow a person who is so good or successful at something that it will be difficult for anyone else coming after them to be as good or successful. E.g. She has been an excellent principal and will be a hard act to follow.

spice something (up) (with something) to add interest or excitement to something. E.g. He exaggerated the details to spice up the story.
Her conversation is always spiced with humour.

regift: /riːˈɡɪft/ Give (an unwanted gift that one has received) to someone else as a gift. E.g. ‘do you think she'll regift that horrendous vase?’ . (no object) ‘the survey showed that 5 per cent of consumers plan to regift this Christmas’
be/go down with something to have or catch an illness
phytosanitary: /ˌfʌɪθəʊˈsanɪt(ə)ri/ Relating to the health of plants, especially with respect to the requirements of international trade.
‘a point-of-origin phytosanitary certificate’

stoker: /ˈstəʊkə(r)/
a person whose job is to add coal or other fuel to a fire, etc., especially on a ship or a steam train.

bow-legged /ˌbəʊ ˈleɡɪd/
having legs that curve out at the knees

/ˈleɡɪd/ /leɡd/
(in adjectives) having the number or type of legs mentioned. E.g. a three-legged stool. a long-legged insect. When -legged is used with numbers, it is nearly always pronounced /leɡɪd/; in other adjectives it can be pronounced /leɡɪd/ or /leɡd/.

asinine: /ˈæsɪnaɪn/
stupid or silly. ridiculous. E.g. That is an asinine statement.
firgun: is an informal modern Hebrew term and concept in Israeli culture, which describes genuine, unselfish delight or pride in the accomplishment of the other.

Mx, usually pronounced /ˈmɪks/ or /ˈmʌks/ (miks or muks), is an English language neologistic honorific that does not indicate gender. It was developed as an alternative to common genderered honorifics, such as Mr. and Ms., in the early 1980s. It is often used by nonbinary people, as well as those who do not wish to reveal or be referred to by their gender

hygge: /ˈhjuːɡə/ /ˈhʊɡə/
(in Denmark) the quality of being warm and comfortable that gives a feeling of happiness. E.g. Why not follow the Danish example and bring more hygge into your daily life? The hygge experience includes warm cups of mulled wine, blazing log fires and candles galore.

Lagom (pronounced [ˈlɑ̀ːɡɔm]) is a Swedish word meaning "just the right amount".

lykke: happiness

gorpcore: fashion design that is influenced by outdoors style, such as fleece jackets, fanny packs, windbreakers, puffy jackets, parkas, and hiking boots. rich people go glamping (glamourous camping) and wear gorpcore clothes.

woke: Being Woke means being aware. Knowing what's going on in the community. E.g. Stay woke!

mansplaining: /ˈmænspleɪnɪŋ/
the practice of a man explaining something to a woman in a way that shows he thinks he knows and understands more than she does. E.g. It was a classic piece of mansplaining.

mansplain something (to somebody) (of a man) to explain something to a woman in a way that shows he thinks he knows and understands more than she does. E.g. I don't really need economics mansplained to me.
street boozing/drinking: Sp. botellón
large open-air drinking parties known as botellones.
outdoor binge-drinking: E.g. over half of all students ages 14 through 18 had participated in an outdoor drinking binge in the previous month
street drinkers
fib: (informal) a statement that is not true; a lie about something that is not important. E.g. Stop telling fibs.

baton: /ˈbætɒn/
1. (also truncheon) (both especially British English) (usually North American English nightstick) a short thick stick that police officers carry as a weapon. E.g. a baton charge (= one made by police carrying batons, to force a crowd back).
2. a thin light stick used by the person (called a
conductor) who is in control of an orchestra, etc. E.g. The orchestra played brilliantly under Previn’s baton.

defriend (also unfriend) to remove somebody from a list of friends or contacts on a social networking website. E.g. If a Facebook friend suddenly becomes your boss, do you unfriend them? Young adults are more likely to unfriend.
1. (usually disapproving) in a way that allows somebody to have or do whatever they want. E.g. to laugh indulgently.
2. in a way that shows you are willing or too willing to ignore the weaknesses in somebody/something. Sp. con benevolencia. E.g. Ideas that were viewed indulgently in 1997 are unacceptable to the public now.

profligate: /ˈprɒflɪɡət/
1. using money, time, materials, etc. in a careless way. Sp. derrochador. E.g. profligate spending. the profligate use of resources. The opposition criticized the government’s profligate spending plans. The report dismisses claims that the US is profligate in its use of energy. profligate consumers of energy.
Licentious; dissolute .Sp. libertino, depravado, vicioso. E.g. he succumbed to drink and a profligate lifestyle
flippant: showing that you do not take something as seriously as other people think you should. E.g. a flippant answer/attitude. Sorry, I didn't mean to sound flippant. You can’t afford to be flippant about such matters.

the upshot: (singular) the final result of a series of events. Outcome. E.g. The upshot of it all was that he left college and got a job. The upshot of the discussions is that the two companies have agreed to work together.

pull your weight
to work as hard as everyone else in a job, an activity, etc.

knuckle down (to something)(informal) to begin to work hard at something.  synonym get down to. E.g. I'm going to have to knuckle down to some serious study.

get down to something to begin to do something; to give serious attention to something. E.g. Let's get down to business. I like to get down to work by 9. get down to something/ doing something It's time I got down to thinking about that essay.

insolent: /ˈɪnsələnt/
extremely rude and showing a lack of respect. E.g. an insolent child/smile. Her tone grew insolent.

courier: /ˈkʊriə(r)/ a person or company whose job is to take packages or important papers somewhere. E.g. We sent the documents by courier. I’ll send a courier with the blueprints. Urgent deliveries of medicine may be sent by motorcycle courier.

1. to sit or lie with your arms and legs spread out in a relaxed or awkward way. E.g. He was sprawling in an armchair in front of the TV.
2. to spread in an untidy way; to cover a large area. E.g. The town sprawled along the side of the lake.
pomegranate: /ˈpɒmɪɡrænɪt/ a round fruit with thick smooth skin and red flesh full of large seeds.
rejig: /ˌriːˈdʒɪɡ/
rejig something (informal) to make changes to something; to arrange something in a different way. Sp. reorganizar. E.g. The main studio has been rejigged to increase its potential audience from some 400 seats to 900.

whack: /wæk/
1. whack somebody/something (informal) to hit somebody/something very hard. E.g. She whacked him with her handbag. James whacked the ball over the net.
2. whack something + adv./prep. (informal) to put something somewhere without much care. E.g. Just whack your bags in the corner.

sass: (N) /sæs/ [uncountable] (informal, especially North American English) behaviour or talk that is rude and lacking respect. E.g. Don’t give me any of your sass!
sass: (V) sass somebody /sæs/ (North American English, informal) to speak to somebody in a rude way, without respect. E.g. Don't sass your mother!