Referring to a chart, graph or table This bar chart illustrates how many journeys people made on public transport over a three-month period. This table compares bus, train, and taxi use between April and June. The results are shown in the chart below. In this pie chart, the survey results are broken down by age. This pie chart breaks down the survey results by age. As can be seen fromthese results, younger people use buses more than older people. According to these figures, bus travel accounts for 60% of public transport use. From the data in the above graph, it is apparent that buses are the most widely used form of public transport.
a military operation in which an army
tries to capture a town by surrounding it and stopping the supply of food, etc.
to the people inside. E.g. the
siege of Troy
(/ˈpəʊtnsi/ the power that
somebody/something has to affect your body or mind. E.g. the
potency of desire.)
(/ˈdrʌdʒəri/ hard boring work. E.g. domestic drudgery)
(sloppy: that shows a lack of care, thought or effort.
Descuidado, desaliñado. E.g. sloppy thinking. Your work is sloppy. A sloppy worker
/ˈsəʊbə(r)/ 1. not drunk (= not affected by alcohol)I promised him that I'd stay sober tonight. E.g. He was as sober as a judge(= completely sober ). 2. serious and sensible. E.g. He is
honest, sober and hard-working.
/ məˈrɔːdɪŋ/ going about in search
of things to steal or people to attack. Sp. Que merodea, que saquea. E.g. marauding gangs of youths.
behaving in an unfriendly way towards other people because you think that you
are better than them.
Scornful: showing or feeling scorn. Sp.
desdeñoso. E.g. He was scornful of such ‘female’ activities as cooking.
Scorn: a strong feeling that
somebody/something is stupid or not good enough, usually shown by the way you
speak. E.g. She was unable to hide the scorn in her voice.
Obsequious: / əbˈsiːkwiəs/
trying too hard to please somebody, especially somebody who is important.
mangle somethingto crush or twist something so that it is badly
damaged. Sp. destrozar, retorcer. E.g. His hand was
mangled in the machine. Mangled
long distance away. Sp. lejano. E.g. expeditions
to the far-flung corners of the world.
Numbing: making you unable to feel anything. Sp. Que entumece.
E.g. numbing cold/ fear. Watching
television had a numbing effect on his mind.
Drowsy: /ˈdraʊzi/ tired
and almost asleep. Sleepy. E.g. The
tablets may make you feel drowsy.
Fledgling: /ˈfledʒlɪŋ/ 1 a young bird that has just learnt to fly. 2 (usually before
another noun) a person, an organization or a system that is new and without
experience. E.g. fledgling democracies.
Pugnacious: / pʌɡˈneɪʃəs/ having a strong desire to argue or fight with other people. Sp.
guerrero. E.g. The pugnacious
freshman later went on Fox to denounce the “extremists” in his party.
Forthright: /ˈfɔːθraɪt / direct
and honest in manner and speech. Frank. E.g. a
woman of forthright views. He spoke in a forthright manner but without anger.
get great pleasure from something; to want very much to do or have something.
Enjoy. E.g. to relish a fight/
challenge/ debate. To relish the idea/ thought of something. I don't
relish the prospect of
getting up early tomorrow.
Chastise somebody (for
something/for doing something) /tʃæˈstaɪz/ (formal) to criticize somebody for doing something wrong. Sp.
reprender. E.g. He chastised the team
for their lack of commitment.
Snap:to speak or say something in an impatient, usually angry,
voice. E.g.‘Don't just stand there,’ she snapped. Snap (at somebody)I
was tempted to snap back angrily at him.Snap somethingHe snapped a reply.
quit. E.g. The simple truth is, if you chuck in your job and decide to
write full time, unless you're very lucky, you're going to run out of cash
set of attitudes or fixed ideas that somebody has and that are often difficult
to change. Mentality. E.g. a
conservative mindset. The mindset of the computer generation.
Rampage: / ˈræmpeɪdʒ / a sudden period of wild and violent
behaviour, often causing damage and destruction. Gangs of youths went on the
rampage in the city yesterday. A state of emergency was declared following
overnight rampages by student demonstrators.
1. a painted cloth hung at the back of a theatre stage
as part of the scenery. Sp. telón de fondo. 2.the setting or background for a scene, event, or situation.
E.g. the conference
took place against
a backdrop of
increasing diplomatic activity.
used to make the floor of a room. E.g.
wooden flooring. Kitchen/bathroom flooring.
1. bar somethingto close something with a bar or bars. E.g. All the doors and windows were barred.2. bar somethingto block a road, path, etc. so that nobody can pass. E.g. Two police officers were barring her exit. We found our way barred by
rocks. 3. Bar
somebody (from something/from doing something)to ban or prevent somebody from doing something. E.g. The players are barred from drinking alcohol the night before a match.
/miˈændə(r)/(+ adverb/preposition) to walk
slowly and change direction often, especially without a particular aim. Wander.
E.g. They meandered around the old town admiring the
Flout something: / flaʊt/ to
show that you have no respect for a law, etc. by openly not obeying it. Defy. Sp. desobedecer. E.g. Motorists regularly flout
the law. To flout authority/convention.
speak loudly and angrily in a way that criticizes somebody/something or tries
to persuade people to do something. E.g. He
walked to the front of the stage and began to harangue the audience.
Crave: crave (for) something/ crave
to do somethingto have a very strong desire for something. E.g. She has always craved excitement.
Seethe:1. to be extremely angry about something but try not to show
other people how angry you are. E.g. She
seethed silently in the corner.Seethe
with somethingHe marched off, seething with frustration.Seethe at somethingInwardly he was seething at
this challenge to his authority. 2. seethe (with something) (formal) (of a
place) to be full of a lot of people or animals, especially when
they are all moving around. E.g. The
resort is seething with tourists all year round. He became caught up in a seething
mass of arms and legs.
pull something/somebody hard, quickly and suddenly.Yank something/somebody (+ adverb/preposition)He
yanked her to her feet.Yank
something/somebody + adjectiveI yanked the door open.(+
yanked at my arm.
Strew: /struː/ strewed, strewed or strewn /struːn/to cover a surface with
things. Scatter. Sp. esparcir. E.g. Clothes were strewn
across the floor.
/ ˈfriːsɒ̃/ a sudden strong feeling, especially of excitement or
fear. Sp. escalofrío. E.g. A frisson of alarm ran down my spine. A
frisson of excitement.
and discussion on television, radio, etc. telling the public about a product
and about how good or important it is. Sp. bombo publicitario. E.g.marketing/media hype. Don't believe all the hype—the book isn't that
a large building with an extensive floor area, typically for
housing, building or repairing aircraft.
the act of getting rid of
something. E.g. the disposal of
Lurk: /lɜːk/ to
wait somewhere secretly, especially because you are going to do something bad
or illegal. Sp. merodear. E.g. Why
are you lurking around outside my house? A crocodile was lurking just below the
Scrub: to clean something by rubbing it hard, perhaps with a brush and usually
with soap and water. E.g. I found him in the kitchen,
scrubbing the floor. He stepped into the shower and scrubbed himself all over.
Spatter: /ˈspætə(r)/ to cover somebody/something with drops of liquid, dirt, etc, especially
by accident. Sp. Salpicar. E.g. As the bus passed, it
spattered us with mud. 2. fall so as to be
scattered over an area. E.g. she
watched the raindrops spatter down.
Overrun, overran, overrun:to fill or spread over an area quickly, especially in large
numbers. Sp. invadir. E.g. The house was completely
overrun with mice. Enemy soldiers had overrun the island. The tiny village was
overrun by tourists.
Roam: /rəʊm/ to walk or travel around an area without
any definite aim or direction. Wander. E.g. The sheep are
allowed to roam freely on this land. To roam the
countryside/the streets, etc.
Poach: /pəʊtʃ/ to illegally hunt birds, animals or fish on somebody
else's property or without permission. Sp. Cazar furtivamente. E.g. The elephants are poached for their tusks.
to throw something/somebody violently in a particular direction. E.g. He hurled a brick through the window. 2. hurl abuse, accusations, insults, etc. (at
somebody)to shout insults, etc. at somebody. E.g. Rival fans hurled abuse at each other.
(up) (+ adverb/preposition)to hold your arms and legs close to your body, usually
because you are cold or frightened. Sp. ponerse de cuclillas. E.g. I huddled under a blanket on the floor.
flow, or to make something flow, slowly in a thin stream. E.g. Tears were trickling down her cheeks.
become unsteady and fall down; to make something do this. Sp. caerse,
derrumbarse. E.g. + adverb/preposition the
pile of books toppled over. He toppled backwards into the river. Topple
somebody/ something + adverb/ prepositionHe brushed past, toppling
her from her stool.
1. to become gradually weaker
or less important. Sp. decaer,
disminuir. E.g. Her enthusiasm for the whole idea was waning rapidly. Their
popularity waned during that period. 2. (of
the moon) have a progressively smaller part of its visible surface illuminated,
so that it appears to decrease in size.
kɜːˈteɪl/ to limit something or make it last for a shorter time. Sp.
acortar, restringir. Spending
on books has been severely curtailed. The lecture was curtailed by the fire
alarm going off. The government will curtail public spending next year.Civil liberties were further curtailed.
Gargantuan: / ɡɑːˈɡæntʃuən/ extremely large. Enormous. E.g. a gargantuan appetite/ meal
Damning:/ˈdæmɪŋ/ critical of somebody/something;
suggesting that somebody is guilty. Sp. Condenatorio, mordaz. E.g. damning criticism/evidence. A damning
Miserly: /ˈmaɪzəli/ 1.
(of a person) hating to spend money. Mean.
2 (quantity) a miserly amount is very small and not enough. E.g. their miserly
offer is unlikely to be accepted. Miserliness (noun) Sp. avaricia.
wrong; based on a false idea. Sp. erróneo, engañoso. E.g. a fallacious argument.
Shoal: /ʃəʊl/ 1.
a large number of fish swimming together as a group. Sp. banco. E.g.
shoals of herring. Squid
travel in shoals. 2. a large number of people or things. Sp. montón.
of people were coming up the drive.
/ uːz/the very slow flow of a fluid. E.g. I
picked a fruit and watched the ooze of fig milk from the stem
Scrap: 1.[countable]a small piece of something,
especially paper, cloth, etc. E.g. She
scribbled his phone number on a scrap of paper.2. a
small amount of something. E.g. It
won't make a scrap of difference. 3. scraps[plural]food left after a meal. E.g.
Give the scraps to the dog. 4. things
that are not wanted or cannot be used for their original purpose, but which
have some value for the material they are made of.
Sp. chatarra. E.g. We sold the car for
scrap(= so that any good parts can be used again). Scrap
metal. A scrap
dealer(= a person who buys and sells scrap).
Smog: a form of air pollution that is or looks like a mixture
of smoke and fog, especially in cities
Encroach: /ɪnˈkrəʊtʃ/ to
slowly begin to cover more and more of an area. Sp. invadir, ocupar. E.g. The growing town soon encroached on the surrounding
countryside. The encroaching tide (=
that is coming in). The ever-encroaching hand of so-called progress.
denude something (of
remove the covering, features, etc. from something, so that it is exposed. Sp.
despojar. E.g. hillsides denuded of
Bequeath: /bɪˈkwiːð/ 1. to say in a will that you
want somebody to have your property, money, etc. after you die. Leave. E.g. He bequeathed his entire estate (= all his money
and property) to his daughter. He bequeathed his daughter
his entire estate. 2. bequeath something (to somebody)| bequeath somebody somethingto leave the results of your work, knowledge,
etc. for other people to use or deal with, especially after you have died. E.g The previous government had bequeathed a legacy of problems.
Eschew: /ɪsˈtʃuː/eschew something (formal) to
deliberately avoid or keep away from something.
E.g. He had eschewed politics in favour of a life practising law.
Bout: / baʊt/ a short
period of great activity; a short period during which there is a lot of a
particular thing, usually something unpleasant. Sp. episodio. E.g. a drinking bout. Bout of something/ of doing somethingthe latest bout of inflation. Regular exercise is better than
occasional bouts of strenuous activity.
Somersault:/ˈsʌməsɔːlt/ a movement in which somebody turns over completely, with
their feet over their head, on the ground or in the air. Sp. voltereta. E.g. to do/turn
a somersault. He turned back
somersaults. (figurative) Her heart did a complete somersault when she saw him.
Splinter: a small thin sharp piece of wood, metal, glass, etc. that has broken
off a larger piece. Sp. Astilla, esquirla. E.g. splinters
of glass. To remove a splinter from your finger.
improvement in the way something is developing.
E.g. We're making great strides in the search for a cure.
concurrently: at the same timeThe prison sentences will