City of Literature
- Stretch + adverb/preposition: to continue over a period of time. E.g. The town's history stretches back to before 1500. The training stretches over a period of 16 months. The tradition stretches back for well over 200 years.
- Many a: (formal) used with a singular noun and verb to mean ‘a large number of’. E.g. Many a good man has been destroyed by drink.
- Come to/into something: used in many expressions to show that something has reached a particular state. E.g. At last winter came to an end. He came to power in 2006. When will they come to a decision? The trees are coming into leaf.
- Being: existence. E.g. The Irish Free State came into being in 1922. The single market came into being in 1993.
- Be (a) witness to something: (formal) to see something take place. E.g. He has been witness to a terrible murder.
- Incomparable: /ɪnˈkɒmprəbl/
- Put yourself/somebody forward: to suggest yourself/somebody as a candidate for a job or position. E.g. Can I put you/your name forward for club secretary? He has put himself forward for a place on the national executive.
- Sit up (and do something): (informal) to start to pay careful attention to what is happening, being said, etc. E.g. The proposal had made his clients sit up and take notice.
- Riveting: /ˈrɪvɪtɪŋ/ so interesting or exciting that it holds your attention completely. engrossing. Sp. fascinante. E.g. As usual, she gave a riveting performance. (Humorous) It was hardly the most riveting of lectures, was it?
- Overview: a general description or an outline of something. E.g. a brief overview of the survey. Exam overview.
- Arise, arose /əˈrəʊz/, arisen: to happen; to start to exist. Sp. surgir. E.g. A new crisis has arisen.
- Insight (into something): an understanding of what something is like. E.g. The book gives us fascinating insights into life in Mexico. I hope you have gained some insight into the difficulties we face.
Multiple Choice Cloze
Tempting (0)__________ in the supermarket?
0. A fatetempt fate/providence: to do something too confidently in a way that might mean that your good luck will come to an end. E.g. She felt it would be tempting fate to try the difficult climb a second time.
1. A muster
muster something (up) to find as much support, courage, etc. as you can. To try to produce as much of a feeling such as enthusiasm or determination as you can. E.g. We mustered what support we could for the plan.She left the room with all the dignity she could muster.He could muster only 154 votes at the election. He was trying to muster support from MPs. It demanded all the willpower I could muster. He replied with as much dignity as he could muster. I finally mustered up the courage to call them.
grapple: 1 [intransitive, transitive] to take a firm hold of somebody/ something and struggle with them. Sp. luchar, pelear, forcejear. E.g. Grapple (with somebody/something) Passers-by grappled with the man after the attack. Grapple somebody/something (+ adverb/preposition) They managed to grapple him to the ground. 2. to try hard to find a solution to a problem. Sp. tratar de resolver. E.g. grapple with something The new government has yet to grapple with the problem of air pollution. Grapple to do something I was grappling to find an answer to his question.
gouge something (in something) /ɡaʊdʒ/ 1. to make a hole or cut in something with a sharp object in a rough or violent way. E.g. The lion's claws had gouged a wound in the horse's side. He had gouged her cheek with a screwdriver. 2. gouge somebody/something (North American English) to force somebody to pay an unfairly high price for something; to raise prices unfairly. E.g. Housing shortages permit landlords to gouge their renters. Price gouging is widespread.
rein somebody/something back/ rein something in 1. to start to control somebody/ something more strictly. Keep under control; restrain. E.g. We need to rein back public spending. She kept her emotions tightly reined in. The government had failed to rein in public spending. 2. to stop a horse or make it go more slowly by pulling back the reins.
2. D sneakily
sneakily: behaving in a secret and sometimes dishonest or unpleasant way. In a surreptitious (done secretly or quickly, in the hope that other people will not notice) manner. Surreptitiously. E.g. But the Queen apparently finds it strange when people try to sneakily take a picture with her.
curmudgeonly /kɜːˈmʌdʒənli/ (adj) bad-tempered. E.g. I don't know, it's hard to explain how I feel without sounding curmudgeonly and bitter.
curmudgeon /kɜːˈmʌdʒən/ (N) a bad-tempered person, often an old one. E.g. Only the worst curmudgeon could dislike this site.
unsightly: /ʌnˈsaɪtli/ not pleasant to look at. Ugly. E.g. an unsightly scar. Unsightly factories.
intricately: elaborately /ɪˈlæbərətli/, in an elaborate way. Having a lot of different parts and small details that fit together. Very complicated or detailed. E.g. intricately carved. Intricately designed. The stories are intricately constructed and subtle. Intricately detailed. All of those things are intricately linked.
thwart /θwɔːt/ to prevent somebody from doing what they want to do. Frustrate. E.g. thwart something to thwart somebody's plans. Thwart somebody (in something) She was thwarted in her attempt to take control of the party.
thaw (out) (of ice and snow) to turn back into water after being frozen. Melt. E.g. The country was slowly thawing out after the long cold winter.
thwack somebody/something to hit somebody/ something hard, making a short loud sound. E.g. she thwacked the back of their knees with a cane. He just thwacked me on the back of the head with a ruler.
throb: 1. throb (with something) (of a part of the body) to feel a series of regular painful movements. E.g. His head throbbed painfully. My feet were throbbing after the long walk home. 2. To beat or sound with a strong, regular rhythm. Pulsate. E.g. The ship's engines throbbed quietly. The blood was throbbing in my veins. The club was throbbing to the beat of the music.
4 C backwards
bend/lean/fall over backwards (to do something) to make a great effort, especially in order to be helpful or fair. To do everything possible to please someone. E.g. I've bent over backwards to help him. I bent over backwards to make it easier for her and she didn't even notice. The taxi driver fell over backwards to be helpful. The teacher bent over backwards to help the students understand.
5 A to
surplus: more than is needed or used. E.g. surplus cash. Surplus grain is being sold for export. This diet guarantees to help you shed surplus fat. Surplus to something These items are surplus to requirements(= not needed).
sling: to throw something somewhere in a careless way. E.g. Don't just sling your clothes on the floor.She slung her coat into the back of the car.
6 B nestling
nestle: /ˈnesl/ 1 [intransitive] + adverb/preposition to sit or lie down in a warm or soft place. E.g. He hugged her and she nestled against his chest. 2 [transitive] nestle somebody/ something + adverb/ preposition to put or hold somebody/ something in a comfortable position in a warm or soft place. He nestled the baby in his arms. She nestled her head against his shoulder. 3 [intransitive] + adverb/ preposition to be located in a position that is protected, sheltered or partly hidden. E.g. The little town nestles snugly (in a warm, comfortable and protected manner) at the foot of the hill.
schlep: 1. to go somewhere, especially if it is a slow, difficult journey, or you do not want to go. E.g. The restaurant's supposed to be great but I don't feel like schlepping all the way out there. 2. schlep something (+ adverb/preposition) to carry or pull something heavy. E.g. I'm not schlepping these suitcases all over town.
latch: latch on (to something) | latch onto something (informal) 1. to understand an idea or what somebody is saying. Sp. entender. E.g. It was a difficult concept to grasp, but I soon latched on. He latched on to the truth. 2. to become attached to somebody/something. Sp. Agarrarse. E.g. antibodies that latch onto germs. 3. to develop a strong interest in something. Sp. acoplarse. E.g. She always latches on to the latest craze.
garnish something (with something) to decorate a dish of food with a small amount of another food. E.g. Garnish the chicken with almonds. Soup garnished with croutons.
7. D baubles
bauble /ˈbɔːbl/ a decoration for a Christmas tree in the shape of a ball.
babble: 1 the sound of many people speaking at the same time. E.g. a babble of voices. 2 talking that is confused or silly and is difficult to understand. E.g. I can't listen to his constant babble. 3 the sounds a baby makes before beginning to say actual words.
gable: /ˈɡeɪbl/ the upper part of the end wall of a building, between the two sloping sides of the roof, that is shaped like a triangle.
crackle: /ˈkrækl/ a series of short sharp sounds. E.g. the distant crackle of machine-gun fire. Erika picked up the phone and through a barrage (/ˈbærɑːʒ/ a large number of something) of crackles heard a familiar voice. The crackle of thunder in the distance.
8 C gorge
gorge: /ɡɔːdʒ/ gorge (yourself) (on something) (sometimes disapproving) to eat a lot of something, until you are too full to eat any more.
stuff to eat a lot of food or too much food; to give somebody a lot or too much to eat. E.g. stuff somebody/ yourself. He sat at the table stuffing himself. Stuff somebody/ yourself with something Don't stuff the kids with chocolate before their dinner. Stuff your face We stuffed our faces at the party.
gobble: to eat something very fast, in a way that people consider rude or greedy. Wolf. Gobble (something) E.g. Don't gobble your food like that! Gobble something up/down They gobbled down all the sandwiches.
wolf something (down) (informal) to eat food very quickly, especially by putting a lot of it in your mouth at once. E.g. The girls wolfed down the pizza in minutes.
9 D lashings
lashings [plural] (British English, informal) a large amount of something, especially of food and drink. E.g. a bowl of strawberries with lashings of cream.
eaterie (also eatery) /ˈiːtəri/ a restaurant or cafe. E.g. The resort has a vast selection of restaurants and eateries, serving French, Italian, American and Indian cuisine.
scruple: /ˈskruːpl/ a feeling that prevents you from doing something that you think may be morally wrong. E.g. I overcame my moral scruples. He had no scruples about spying on her. She is totally without scruple.
Tribulation: /ˌtrɪbjuˈleɪʃn/ great trouble or suffering. E.g. the tribulations of modern life. His time of tribulation was just beginning. The tribulations of being a megastar.
trials and tribulations Cliché problems and tests of one's courage or perseverance. E.g. I suppose I have the normal trials and tribulations for a person of my background, but some days are just a little too much for me. I promise not to tell you of the trials and tribulations of my day if you promise not to tell me yours!
10. C chomping
chomp: to eat or bite food noisily. E.g. chomp (away) (on/through something) She was chomping away on a bagel. He was chomping on a roll.
engross somebody: / ɪnˈɡrəʊs/ if something engrosses you, it is so interesting that you give it all your attention and time. E.g. As the business grew, it totally engrossed him. An engrossing problem. The most engrossing parts of the book.
Relish: to get great pleasure from something; to want very much to do or have something. Enjoy. E.g. relish something to relish a fight/ challenge/ debate. To relish the idea/ thought of something. I don't relish the prospect of getting up early tomorrow.
chuck: to throw something carelessly or without much thought. E.g. chuck something (+ adverb/ preposition) He chucked the paper in a drawer. Chuck somebody something Chuck me the newspaper, would you?
Chuck in: quit. E.g. The simple truth is, if you chuck in your job and decide to write full time, unless you're very lucky, you're going to run out of cash pretty soon.
11. A feast
Feast your eyes (on somebody/something) to look at somebody/something and get great pleasure. E.g. If you're looking for new kitchen utensils, feast your eyes on these goodies.
Crave: crave (for) something/ crave to do something to have a very strong desire for something. E.g. She has always craved excitement
Scrub: to clean something by rubbing it hard, perhaps with a brush and usually with soap and water. E.g. I found him in the kitchen, scrubbing the floor. He stepped into the shower and scrubbed himself all over.
Spatter: / ˈspætə(r)/ to cover somebody/something with drops of liquid, dirt, etc, especially by accident. Sp. Salpicar. E.g. As the bus passed, it spattered us with mud. 2. fall so as to be scattered over an area. E.g. she watched the raindrops spatter down.
12 D perfunctory
perfunctory /pəˈfʌŋktəri/ done as a duty or habit, without real interest, attention or feeling. E.g. a perfunctory nod/smile. They only made a perfunctory effort.
Gargantuan: / ɡɑːˈɡæntʃuən/ extremely large. Enormous. E.g. a gargantuan appetite/ meal
Fallacious: /fəˈleɪʃəs/ wrong; based on a false idea. Sp. erróneo, engañoso. E.g. a fallacious argument.
Scarcely: /ˈskeəsli/ only just; almost not. Sp. apenas. E.g. I can scarcely believe it. We scarcely ever meet. Scarcely a week goes by without some new scandal in the papers. There was scarcely a tree left standing after the storm.
shed something (often used in newspapers) to get rid of something that is no longer wanted. E.g. The factory is shedding a large number of jobs. A quick way to shed unwanted pounds (= extra weight or fat on your body). Museums have been trying hard to shed their stuffy (very serious, formal, boring or old-fashioned) image.
13 A oodles
oodles (of something) (old-fashioned, informal) a large amount of something. Loads. E.g. Bob makes oodles of money, you know.
Yarn /jɑːn/ 1. [uncountable, countable] thread that has been spun, used for knitting, making cloth, etc. 2. a long story, especially one that is exaggerated or invented. E.g. A good yarn. He used to spin yarns (= tell stories) about his time in the Army.Hoax: / həʊks/ an act intended to make somebody believe something that is not true, especially something unpleasant. Sp. engaño, broma. E.g. a bomb hoax. Hoax calls. The emergency call turned out to be a hoax. Was the moon landing a hoax? How many hoaxes have you unknowingly believed?
Hurdles a race in which runners or horses have to jump over hurdles (vertical frames that a person or horse jumps over in a race. Sp. Vallas. E.g. the 300 m hurdles.
Hurdle: a problem or difficulty that must be solved or dealt with before you can achieve something. Obstacle. E.g. the next hurdle will be getting her parents' agreement. Well we've cleared the first hurdle; let's see what happens next. We worked hard for three months on the deal only to see it fall at the final hurdle.
elegant sufficiency: It is a refinement of "Have you had sufficient/enough?" E.g. "Have you had (an) elegant sufficiency?" After serving a meal and the guests have eaten, the host might ask "Have you had elegant sufficiency?" meaning 'Was that meal adequate for you, or would you like some more?'
14. C wont
wont: /wəʊnt/ wont (to do something) in the habit of doing something. Accustomed. E.g. He was wont to fall asleep after supper.
used to be used to + -ing
habit: in the habit of
want (not usually used in the progressive tenses)
15. B opined
opine that… /əʊˈpaɪn/ (formal) to express a particular opinion. E.g. He opined that Prague was the most beautiful city in Europe.
opinionated (adj) /əˈpɪnjəneɪtɪd/ having very strong opinions that you are not willing to change. E.g. I've never met anyone so arrogant and opinionated.
decry: /dɪˈkraɪ/ decry somebody/something (as something) (formal) to strongly criticize somebody/ something, especially publicly. E.g. The measures were decried as useless.
- Appeal: 1. a quality that makes somebody/something attractive or interesting. E.g. mass/wide/popular appeal. The Beatles have never really lost their appeal. The prospect of living in a city holds little appeal for me.
- Appeal: 2. an urgent and deeply felt request for money, help or information, especially one made by a charity or by the police. E.g. to launch a TV appeal for donations to the charity.
- Appeal (to somebody/something) (against something): to make a formal request to a court or to somebody in authority for a judgement or a decision to be changed. Sp. apelar, recurrir. E.g. He said he would appeal after being found guilty on four counts of murder. The company is appealing against the ruling (Sp. fallo, resolución).
- Table something: to leave an idea, a proposal, etc. to be discussed at a later date. Sp. posponer. E.g. They voted to table the proposal until the following meeting.
- Table manners: the behaviour that is considered correct while you are having a meal at a table with other people.
- Water table: the level at and below which water is found in the ground.
- Fanfare: a large amount of activity and discussion on television, in newspapers, etc. to celebrate somebody/something. E.g. The product was launched amid much fanfare worldwide. Despite the fanfare of publicity that accompanied its launch, his latest novel sold only a few hundred copies.
- Outlet: a point from which goods are sold or distributed. Sp. punto de venta. E.g. a fast-food outlet.
- Stand (on something): an attitude towards something or an opinion that you make clear to people. Sp. postura. E.g. to take a firm stand on something. He was criticized for his tough stand on immigration.
- Stand (for/as something): (North American English usually run) to be a candidate in an election. He stood for parliament (= tried to get elected as an MP). She stood unsuccessfully as a candidate in the local elections.
- Stand: a table or a vertical structure where things are displayed or advertised, for example at an exhibition. E.g. a display/an exhibition/a trade stand. Oxford University Press's stand at the book fair.
Key word transformation
- Come to light: to become known to people. E.g. New evidence has recently come to light.
- Break: when the day or dawn or a storm breaks, it begins. E.g. Dawn was breaking when they finally left.