Tuesday, 15 May 2018

Interesting Vocabulary for C2

gain, get, have, etc. the upper hand
to get an advantage over somebody so that you are in control of a particular situation. Have, gain... advantage or control over someone or something.   If you have the upper hand, you have more power than anyone else and so have control. E.g. After hours of fierce negotiations, the president gained/got/had the upper hand. 
he usually has the upper hand because he's older’
‘each strives to gain the upper hand in military might
However, it would be wrong to think that the government has the upper hand in controlling public opinion.

put somebody/something through their/its paces
to give somebody/something a number of tasks to perform in order to see what they are capable of doing. to make someone show you their skills and knowledge, or to test how well something works. E.g. Youngsters will be put through their paces by qualified instructors. We sent our reporter to put Ford’s newest model through its paces.
As the machines come off the assembly line, a team of quality controllers puts them through their paces.The interview panel will put all candidates through their paces especially in relation to financial skills. Prior to the big race, the jockey put his horse through its paces. Sp. Antes de la carrera principal, el jockey probó repetidamente a su caballo
pouffe: (also pouf) /puːf/ (both British English) (North American English hassocka large thick cushion used as a seat or for resting your feet on.
backrest(also seat back) part of a seat that supports somebody’s back.
daub: /dɔːb/
daub A on, etc. B | daub B with A | daub something + adv./prep. to spread a substance such as paint, mud, etc. thickly and/or carelessly onto something. Sp. untar, embadurnar. E.g. The walls of the building were daubed with red paint. All the windows are smashed and the walls are daubed with graffiti. The walls had been daubed with graffiti.The baby had daubed butter all over his hair and face. Daub some jam on my toast. Sp. Unta mermelada en mi tostada. The bricklayer daubed mortar onto the layer of bricks. Sp. El albañil embadurnó la capa de ladrillos con argamasa. Daub the meat with the marinade and let it chill for three hours. Sp. Embadurna la carne con el adobo y refrigérala durante tres horas.
indelible /ɪnˈdeləbl/ impossible to forget or remove. Permanent. E.g.  The experience made an indelible impression on me. Her unhappy childhood left an indelible mark. Colonialism has left an indelible imprint on the island.

1.  imprint (of something) (in/on something) a mark made by pressing or stamping something onto a surface. E.g. the imprint of a foot in the sand. The blow made a sharp imprint on the skin.

2. imprint (of something) (on somebody/something) (formal) the lasting effect that a person or an experience has on a place or a situation. E.g. Colonialism has left an indelible imprint on the island.

one-hit wonder: a performer of popular music who makes one successful recording but then no others.
invoice: bill. Sp. facturar. E.g.  You will be invoiced for these items at the end of the month. Invoice the goods to my account. 
wallflower: a person who does not dance at a party because they do not have somebody to dance with or because they are too shy.
transistor radio: portable radio.

fireman's lift /ˌfaɪə.mənz ˈlɪft/ a way of carrying someone over your shoulder. E.g. Dad used to pick me up in a fireman's lift and spin me around.

root for somebody

[no passive] (usually used in the progressive tenses) (informal) to support or encourage somebody in a sports competition or when they are in a difficult situation. We're rooting for the Bulls. Good luck—I'm rooting for you!

forte: /ˈfɔːteɪ/ a thing that somebody does particularly well. E.g. Languages were never my forte. 
sty: (also stye) /staɪ/ (sties, styes) an infection of the eyelid (= the skin above or below the eye) which makes it red and sore. Sp. orzuelo.

gumboil/ˈɡʌmbɔɪl/ a small swelling on the gum in a person’s mouth, over an infected area on the root of a tooth. Sp. flemón E.g. He has a decayed molar, and he has gotten a gumboil. Sp.  Tiene la muela cariada y le ha salido un flemón  
cobbler: /ˈkɒblə(r)/
1. [countable] a type of fruit or meat pie with a thick cake or pastry layer on top. E.g. peach cobbler.
2. [countable] a person who repairs shoes. Shoemaker.
3.  cobblers (British English, informal) nonsense. E.g. He said it was all a load of cobblers. 

cotton on (to something)

(informal) to begin to understand or realize something without being told. E.g. I suddenly cottoned on to what he was doing.

close-knit (of a group of people) having strong relationships with each other and taking a close, friendly interest in each other’s activities and problems. E.g. the close-knit community of a small village.

have something at your fingertips
to have the information, knowledge, etc. that is needed in a particular situation and be able to find it easily and use it quickly. E:g. I made sure I had all the facts at my fingertips before attending the meeting.

To have at one's fingers' ends
to be thoroughly familiar with.
subversive: /səbˈvɜːsɪv/ trying or likely to destroy or damage a government or political system by attacking it secretly or indirectly. E.g.  subversive activities 

underscore: /ˌʌndəˈskɔː(r)/  underline. E.g. His speech underscored the need for a clear policy. Underscore a fact.
swanky: fashionable and expensive in a way that is intended to impress people. E.g. a swanky new hotel

cut your teeth on something
to do something that gives you your first experience of a particular type of work. E.g. She cut her teeth on local radio.
inflict: to make somebody/something suffer something unpleasant. inflict something on/upon somebody/something They inflicted a humiliating defeat on the home team. Heavy casualties were inflicted on the enemy. (humorous) Do you have to inflict that music on us? inflict something They surveyed the damage inflicted by the storm. The rodent’s sharp teeth can inflict a nasty bite. When someone deliberately inflicts damage, it is a matter for the police.

inflict yourself/somebody on somebody

(often humorous) to force somebody to spend time with you/somebody, when they do not want to. E.g. Sorry to inflict myself on you again like this! She inflicted her nephew on them for the weekend.
The shadows of the civil war still hang heavily over our country

hang over somebody

if something bad or unpleasant is hanging over you, you think about it and worry about it a lot because it is happening or might happenIf a threat or doubt hangs over a place or a situation, it exists. E.g. The possibility of a court case is still hanging over her. Uncertainty again hangs over the project

tat: (U) (N) goods that are cheap and of low quality.
tacky:  (adj) cheap, badly made and/or lacking in taste tacky souvenirs. E.g. The movie had a really tacky ending. 
pilaf: a hot spicy Eastern dish of rice and vegetables and often pieces of meat or fish.
on the hoof
1. meat that is sold, transported, etc. on the hoof is sold, etc. while the cow or sheep is still alive.
2.  if you do something on the hoof, you do it quickly and without giving it your full attention because you are doing something else at the same time. E.g. I often have lunch on the hoof between two appointments. the consequences of making government policy on the hoof. I've got a meeting downtown in 20 minutes so I'll have lunch on the hoof.
chillax: /tʃɪˈlaks/ informal
  • Calm down and relax.
    ‘you can dance to your favourite tune, chillax, or have friends over’


    Early 21st century: blend of chill (sense 3 of the verb) and relax.
prenuptial agreement /priːˌnʌpʃl əˈɡriːmənt/ (also informal prenup /ˈpriːnʌp/ an agreement made by a couple before they get married in which they say how their money and property is to be divided if they get divorced
Pet therapy is a guided interaction between a person and a trained animal. It also involves the animal's handler. The purpose of pet therapy is to help someone recover from or cope with a health problem or mental disorder. Dogs and cats are most commonly used in pet therapy.
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a type of therapy that involves animals as a form of treatment. The goal of AAT is to improve a patient's social, emotional, or cognitive functioning. Advocates state that animals can be useful for educational and motivational effectiveness for participants.  
art therapy: /ˌɑːt ˈθerəpi/ a type of psychotherapy in which you are encouraged to express yourself using art materials
13. motor
connected with movement of the body that is produced by muscles; connected with the nerves that control movement. E.g. uncoordinated motor activity. Both motor and sensory functions are affected.

14. attuned
attuned (to somebody/something) /əˈtjuːnd/ familiar with somebody/something so that you can understand or recognize them or it and act in an appropriate way. Sp. en sintonía con. E.g. She wasn't yet attuned to her baby's needs.

15. tapping
tap (something) if you tap your fingers, feet, etc. or they tap, you hit them gently against a table, the floor, etc., for example to the rhythm of music. E.g. He kept tapping his fingers on the table. The music set everyone's feet tapping.

16. tempos
tempo: /ˈtempəʊ/ the speed or rhythm of a piece of music. E.g. a slow/fast tempo. It's a difficult piece, with numerous changes of tempo.

spelling bee
a competition in which people have to spell words

commit something to memory to learn something well enough to remember it exactly. E.g. She committed the instructions to memory.

28. disparate /ˈdɪspərət/
made up of parts or people that are very different from each other. Sp. dispar. E.g. a disparate group of individuals 

defendingdefend something to take part in a competition that you won the last time and try to win it again. E.g. He is defending champion. She will be defending her title at next month's championships. (politics) He intends to defend his seat in the next election.

31. ringmaster
the person who introduces the performers at a circus

see someone or something in a new light to understand someone or something in a different way [than before]. E.g. After we had a little discussion, I began to see Fred in a new light. I can now see the problem in a new light.

35. breaking new ground
break new ground
to make a new discovery or do something that has not been done before

await somebody to be going to happen to somebody. E.g. A warm welcome awaits all our guests. Who knows what dangers may await us?

38. integrated /ˈɪntɪɡreɪtɪd/
in which many different parts are closely connected and work successfully together, E.g. an integrated programme of patient care. an integrated transport system (= including buses, trains, taxis, etc.)
smelliness: strong or unpleasant smell.
odours: /ˈəʊdə(r)/ a smell, especially one that is unpleasant. E.g. a foul/musty/pungent, etc. odour the stale odour of cigarette smoke. (Figurative) the odour of suspicion.
musty: smelling damp and unpleasant because of a lack of fresh air.
downright: used as a way of emphasizing something negative or unpleasant. Sp. realmente. E.g. She couldn't think of anything to say that wasn't downright rude. It's not just stupid—it's downright dangerous.
astronaut: /ˈæstrənɔːt/
sniffer: A person who sniffs something. E.g. a glue sniffer.
sniff: to breathe air in through the nose in order to discover or enjoy the smell of something.
stringent: /ˈstrɪndʒənt/ (of a law, rule, regulation, etc.) very strict and that must be obeyed. E.g. stringent air quality regulations. Licences are only granted under the most stringent conditions.
cramped: a cramped room, etc. does not have enough space for the people in it. E.g. working in cramped conditions. He lived for six months in a cold, cramped attic room.
circuit boards: /ˈsɜːkɪt/ a board that holds electrical circuits inside a piece of electrical equipment.
mascara /ˈskɑːrə/ a substance that is put on eyelashes to make them look dark and thick. E.g. waterproof mascara. Don’t cry or your mascara will run. I wiped most of the mascara from under my eyes.
sealed: to close a container tightly. E.g. The organs are kept in sealed plastic bags.
aftertaste: a taste (usually an unpleasant one) that stays in your mouth after you have eaten or drunk something.
strap: a strip of leather, cloth or other material that is used to fasten something, keep something in place, carry something or hold onto something. E.g. the shoulder straps of her dress. A watch with a leather strap.
blister: to form blisters; to make something form blisters. E.g. His skin was beginning to blister. Blister something Her face had been blistered by the sun.
blister: (N) a swelling on the surface of the skin that is filled with liquid and is caused, for example, by rubbing or burning. Sp. ampolla. E.g. These shoes have given me blisters on my heels.
scrutiny: careful and thorough examination. E.g. Foreign policy has come under close scrutiny recently. The situation is bound to come under the scrutiny of the public health authorities.
hit the nail on the head: to say something that is exactly right.
abort: to end or cause something to end before it has been completed, especially because it is likely to fail. E.g. We had no option but to abort the mission.
co-opt somebody (onto/into something): to make somebody a member of a group, committee, etc. by the agreement of all the other members. E.g. She was co-opted onto the board.
cheesy: not very good or original, and without style, in a way that is embarrassing but amusing. Sp. cursi. E.g. a cheesy horror movie. That’s the cheesiest chat-up line I’ve ever heard.

Avidly: with a lot of enthusiasm. Keenly E.g. She reads avidly.
Avid: very enthusiastic about something (often a hobby). E.g. an avid reader/collector. She has taken an avid interest in the project (= she is extremely interested in it).
Voraciously: /vəˈreɪʃəsli/ in a way that involves wanting a lot of new information and knowledge. Avidly. E.g. Ever since her childhood she had read voraciously.
Read something out:  to read something using your voice, especially to other people. E.g. Shall I read this out to you?
Relish: great enjoyment or pleasure. E.g. She savoured the moment with obvious relish.
Timescale: the period of time that it takes for something to happen or be completed. Sp. Período de tiempo, plazo. E.g. What's the timescale for the project? A tight timescale. We hope the negotiations will be completed within a six-month timescale.
Ostracize: /ˈɒstrəsaɪz/ ostracize somebody (formal) to refuse to let somebody be a member of a social group; to refuse to meet or talk to somebody. E.g. He was ostracized by his colleagues for refusing to support the strike. The regime risks being ostracized by the international community.
on cloud nine extremely happy.
Under a cloud: if somebody is under a cloud, other people think that they have done something wrong and are suspicious of them. E.g.  She resigned under a cloud. The cabinet minister left office under a cloud after a fraud scandal. Someone stole some money at work, and now everyone is under a cloud of suspicion. Even the manager is under a cloud.
under the weather: (informal) if you are or feel under the weather, you feel slightly ill/sick and not as well as usual.
in character, out of character: typical/not typical of a person’s character. E.g. Her behaviour last night was completely out of character.
in character (with something): in the same style as something. E.g. The new wing of the museum was not really in character with the rest of the building.
Understatement: the practice of making things seem less impressive, important, serious, etc. than they really are. E.g. Typical English understatement. He always goes for subtlety and understatement in his movies.
rapture: a feeling of extreme pleasure and happiness. Delight. E.g. Charles listened with rapture to her singing. The children gazed at her in rapture. Never before had she known such rapture.
Obnoxious: /əbˈnɒkʃəs/ extremely unpleasant, especially in a way that offends people. Offensive. E.g. obnoxious behaviour.
obnoxiousness: I am outraged at the degree of obnoxiousness with which students are treating the new teacher.
Rant and rave (disapproving) to show that you are angry by shouting or complaining loudly for a long time.
Acrimonious: /ˌækrɪˈməʊniəs/ (adj) (of an argument, etc.) angry and full of strong bitter feelings and words. Bitter. E.g. His parents went through an acrimonious divorce. The split-up was not acrimonious and Adam spent time with both his mother and father.
furore /fjuˈrɔːri/ /ˈfjʊərɔː(r)/ (also furor /ˈfjʊərɔː(r)/) [singular] great anger or excitement shown by a number of people, usually caused by a public event. Uproar. E.g. furore (among somebody) His novel about Jesus caused a furore among Christians. Furore (about/over something) the recent furore over the tax increases. Such a major policy reversal is certain to spark a furore among conservatives. Cause, create, provoke a furore His choice of words created quite a furore. The furore which surrounded her appointment as chairman. His resignation passed almost unnoticed amid the furore of the elections. The furore about/over/surrounding the furore over the proposed introduction of tax on fuel. The sale of the two best players caused a furore among the fans.
zest: zest (for something) enjoyment and enthusiasm. E.g. He had a great zest for life.
despondency: a feeling of being sad and without much hope. E.g. a mood of despondency. Life's not all gloom and despondency. Despondency (about/over something) a situation of high unemployment and despondency about the future.
Unswerving: /ʌnˈswɜːvɪŋ/ strong and not changing or becoming weaker. Steady. Constant. Sp. Inquebrantable, a toda prueba. E.g. unswerving loyalty/ support, etc.
to be unswervingly loyal to sb Sp. ser totalmente leal a algn
to hold unswervingly to one's course Sp. no apartarse ni un ápice de su rumbo
she remained unswervingly loyal to him Sp. siguió totalmente fiel a él
he continued unswervingly on his chosen course Sp. continuó sin vacilar por el camino que había elegido.
Enlightened: educated, wise, open-minded.
Cantankerous: /kænˈtæŋkərəs/ bad-tempered and always complaining. E.g. a cantankerous old man.

Avidly: with a lot of enthusiasm. Keenly E.g. She reads avidly.
Avid: very enthusiastic about something (often a hobby). E.g. an avid reader/collector. She has taken an avid interest in the project (= she is extremely interested in it).
Trepidation: great worry or fear about something unpleasant that may happen. Sp. Inquietud. E.g. He knocked on the door with some trepidation.
Sustain: /səˈsteɪn/ sustain something to make something continue for some time without becoming less. Maintain. E.g. a period of sustained economic growth. A sustained attack.  She managed to sustain everyone's interest until the end of her speech. Kangaroos can sustain high speeds over long distances.
Plough: /plaʊ/ plough (something) to dig and turn over a field or other area of land with a plough. Sp. Arar, labrar. E.g. ploughed fields.
Selection: the process of choosing somebody/something from a group of people or things, usually according to a system. E.g. The final team selection will be made tomorrow. The random selection of numbers. Selection criteria. The selection process.
Outset: at/from the outset (of something) at/from the beginning of something I made it clear right from the outset that I disapproved. You should have made that clear right at the outset.
Hooked: hooked (on something) (informal) enjoying something very much, so that you want to do it, see it, etc. as much as possible.
Brilliance: /ˈbrɪliəns/ the quality of being extremely impressive, intelligent or skilful. E.g. There were flashes of brilliance from the soloists, but generally the playing and singing lacked sparkle. The technical brilliance of his later films. Academic brilliance.
Doomed: doom somebody/something (to something) doom somebody/something to do something to make somebody/something certain to fail, suffer, die, etc.  Sp. Condenado al fracas. E.g. The plan was doomed to failure. The marriage was doomed from the start.
Havoc: /ˈhævək/ a situation in which there is a lot of damage, destruction or confusion. Sp. Devastación, confusion, caos. E.g. The floods caused havoc throughout the area. Continuing strikes are beginning to play havoc with the national economy. These insects can wreak havoc on crops.
Poignant: /ˈpɔɪnjənt/ having a strong effect on your feelings, especially in a way that makes you feel sad. Moving. E.g. a poignant image/moment/memory, etc. Her face was a poignant reminder of the passing of time.
Breathe: breathe something (formal) to be full of a particular feeling or quality. E.g. Her performance breathed wit and charm.
Breathe new life: Reinvent. Sp. Dar un nuevo aire, dar una nueva vida. E.g. Hiring Edie with her fresh new ideas will breathe new life into this company. Sp. Contratar a Edie, con su creatividad, infundirá nueva vida a esta empresa.
Fashion: to make or shape something, especially with your hands. Sp. Formar, moldear. E.g. She fashioned a pot from the clay.
Disaffected: /ˌdɪsəˈfektɪd/ no longer satisfied with your situation, organization, belief, etc. and therefore not loyal to it. Sp. Marginado. E.g. Some disaffected members left to form a new party.
Bitingly: in a cruel and critical way. E.g. ‘You're lying,’ he said bitingly. A bitingly funny show. Bitingly critical. A bitingly critical article. He was also bitingly critical of academic textbooks.
Stint: (usually used in negative sentences) to provide or use only a small amount of something. Sp. Escatimar. E.g. stint (on something) She never stints on the food at her parties. Stint yourself We don't need to stint ourselves—have some more!
Crunch: a noise like the sound of something firm being crushed. E.g. the crunch of feet on snow. The car drew up with a crunch of gravel.
cobblestones: (also cobbles) small stones used to make the surfaces of roads, especially in the past. E.g.  a cart clattering over the cobbles.
smear: an oily or dirty mark. E.g. a smear of jam.
Quill: (also quill pen) a pen made from a quill feather (a large feather from the wing or tail of a bird).
oblique: /əˈbliːk/ not expressed or done in a direct way. Indirect. E.g. an oblique reference/ approach/ comment.
deadpan: without any expression or emotion; often pretending to be serious when you are joking. E.g. deadpan humour. She looked up, completely deadpan.
ludicrous: unreasonable; that you cannot take seriously. Absurd. Ridiculous. E.g. a ludicrous suggestion. It was ludicrous to think that the plan could succeed. He is paid a ludicrous amount of money.
farce: /fɑːs/ a funny play for the theatre based on ridiculous and unlikely situations and events; this type of writing or performance. E.g. a bedroom farce (= a funny play about sex).
in-passing: done or said while you are giving your attention to something else. Said or mentioned as an aside.  Casually. E.g. He only mentioned it in passing and didn't give any details. I just heard your name in passing. I didn't hear more than that. The lecturer referred to George Washington in passing.
zestful: full of enjoyment and enthusiasm.
sobering: /ˈsəʊbərɪŋ/ making you feel serious and think carefully. E.g.  a sobering effect/ experience/ thought, etc. It is sobering to realize that this is not a new problem. It had a sobering effect on me (Sp. fue aleccionador). It's a sobering thought (Sp. da que pensar).
gusto: /ˈɡʌstəʊ/ enthusiasm and energy in doing something. E.g. They sang with gusto. She attacked the huge slice of chocolate cake with great gusto.
forlorn: /fəˈlɔːn/ (of a person) appearing lonely and unhappy. E.g. She looked so forlorn, standing there in the rain.
Rise to the challenge/ occasion: to show that you can deal with a difficult situation successfully. E.g. In the exam she rose to the occasion and wrote a brilliant essay. You can depend on Kelly to rise to the challenge. We were not able to rise to the challenge and we lost the contract.
gothic: (of a novel, etc.) written in the style popular in the 18th and 19th centuries, which described romantic adventures in mysterious or frightening surroundings.
in a very impressive and powerful way. E.g. a devastatingly handsome man. The play was devastatingly funny.
prey: be/fall prey to something  1. (of an animal) to be killed and eaten by another animal or bird. E.g. Many small birds and rodents fall prey to the domestic cat. 2. (of a person) to be harmed or affected by something bad. Since the attack, she had fallen prey to irrational fears.
lurid: /ˈlʊərɪd/ /ˈljʊərɪd/ 1. too bright in colour, in a way that is not attractive. Sp. chillón, estridente. E.g. She was wearing a lurid orange and green blouse. 2. (especially of a story or piece of writing) shocking and violent in a way that is deliberate. Sp. morboso, escabroso, sensacionalista, horripilante, espeluznante. E.g. lurid headlines. The paper gave all the lurid details of the murder. In lurid detail (Sp. sin omitir los detalles más escabrosos).
totter: 1. to walk or move with weak unsteady steps, especially because you are drunk or ill/sick. Stagger. E.g. She managed to totter back to her seat. 2. to be weak and seem likely to fall. E.g. the tottering walls of the castle. (Figurative) a tottering dictatorship (Sp. tambaleante).
slant: slant (on something/somebody) a way of thinking about something, especially one that shows support for a particular opinion or side in a disagreement. Sp. punto de vista, enfoque. E.g. She put a new slant on the play. Her book looks at his writings from a feminist slant.
round the bend/twist (North American English around the bend)
(informal) crazy. E.g. She's gone completely round the bend. The kids have been driving me round the bend today (= annoying me very much).

1. the ability of people or things to feel better quickly after something unpleasant, such as shock, injury, etc.
E.g. He showed great courage and resilience in fighting back from a losing position to win the game.

2.  the ability of a substance to return to its original shape after it has been bent, stretched or pressed. E.g. the natural beauty and resilience of wool.

1. watershed (in something) an event or a period of time that marks an important change. E.g. The middle decades of the 19th century marked a watershed in Russia's history.

2.  a line of high land where streams on one side flow into one river, and streams on the other side flow into a different river.
3.  the watershed [singular] (in Britain) the time before which programmes that are not considered suitable for children may not be shown on television. E.g. the 9 o’clock watershed.
watershed moment:  A critical turning point in time where everything changes that will never be the same as before ( A figurative meaning comes from the literal meaning of a point-or division in a river or a stream where the river is split into two paths that will never intersect again )
eponym/ˈepənɪm/ a person or thing, or the name of a person or thing, from which a place, an invention, a discovery, etc. gets its name.

bowdlerise/ˈbaʊdləraɪz/ (also
bowdlerize something
(usually disapproving) to remove the parts of a book, play, etc. that you think are likely to shock or offend people. Expurgate. ( Named after Dr Thomas Bowdler, who in 1818 produced a version of Shakespeare from which he had taken out all the material which he considered not suitable for family use ( expurgated edition ). ) E.g.  every edition of his letters and diaries has been bowdlerized.

boycott something /ˈbɔɪkɒt/ to refuse to buy, use or take part in something as a way of protesting. E.g. We are asking people to boycott goods from companies that use child labour. They have urged people to boycott foreign products. ( from the name of Captain Charles C. Boycott (1832–97), an Irish land agent treated in this way in 1880, in an attempt instigated by the Irish Land League to get rents reduced. )
lynch somebody if a crowd of people lynch somebody whom they consider guilty of a crime, they capture them, do not allow them to have a trial in court, and kill them illegally, usually by hanging. ( mid 19th cent.: from Lynch's law Lynch's law, named after Capt. William Lynch, head of a self-constituted judicial tribunal in Virginia c.1780.

lynchingthe illegal killing of somebody, usually by hanging, by a crowd of people and without a trial

lynch mob: /ˈlɪntʃ mɒb/ a crowd of people who gather to lynch somebody 
sarong: /səˈrɒŋa long piece of cloth wrapped around the body from the waist or the chest, worn by Malaysian and Indonesian men and women.
1.  the wool coat of a sheep; this coat when it has been removed from a sheep (by shearing ).
2.  a type of soft warm cloth that feels like sheep’s wool; a jacket or sweatshirt that is made from this cloth. E.g. a fleece lining. a bright red fleece.

copious: /ˈkəʊpiəs/ in large amounts. Abundant. E.g.  copious (= large) amounts of water. I took copious notes. She supports her theory with copious evidence.
I took copious notes.

My father has more miles under his belt than most other people alive. 

"Carry coals to Newcastle" To do something pointless and superfluous. E.g. It was like carrying coals to Newcastle when John was giving a flower to my sister who is a florist.
creative: (N) (C) a person who is creative. E.g. The exhibition features the paintings of local creatives. Robert Rauschenberg is said to have blazed a trail for creatives in the US throughout the 20th century.

soul-searching/ˈsəʊl sɜːtʃɪŋthe careful examination of your thoughts and feelings, for example in order to reach the correct decision or solution to something. E.g. After much soul-searching she decided to leave.
1. twisted together in an untidy way. Sp. enredado. E.g. tangled hair/bed clothes.
2.  complicated, and not easy to understand. E.g. tangled financial affairs. the tangled wars of the sixteenth century.

writhe (about/around) (in/with something) /raɪð/ to twist or move your body without stopping, often because you are in great pain. Sp. que se retuerce de dolor. E.g. She was writhing around on the floor in agony. The snake writhed and hissed. (figurative) He was writhing (= suffering a lot) with embarrassment.
  the twisting and writhing bodies of demonsRiley was twisting and writhing on the floor and unable to control his sickness
soppy: silly and sentimental; full of unnecessary emotion. E.g. soppy love songs. She is soppy about cats. Soppy nonsense.  Well, if this isn't nonsense, and pretty soppy nonsense at that, I don't know what is. Pull yourself together, girl, and remember that you've got to keep John at arm's length.
one-trick pony/ˌwʌn trɪk ˈpəʊnia performer who is only famous for one song, etc.; a person or business that is only good at doing one thing. E.g. This comedian is no one-trick pony. For the first six years of its life the company was a one-trick pony. But what a trick!
We were a one-trick pony before, and now we’re able to provide a full range of services.
fulfilment: (North American English fulfillment)
1. the act of doing or achieving what was hoped for or expected. E.g. the fulfilment of a dream.
2. the fact of doing or having what is required or necessary. E.g. the fulfilment of a promise  
3. happiness and satisfaction with what you are doing or have done. E.g. to find personal fulfilment. a sense of fulfilment.

by extension
(formal) taking the argument or situation one stage further. Sp. por extensión. E.g. The blame lies with the teachers and, by extension, with the Education Service.
counterweight: /ˈkaʊntəweɪt/ Counterbalance
E.g. The senate is the opposition’s counterweight to the new president.  ‘conservatives saw the family as a counterweight to the power of the state’

(to something)
a thing that has an equal but opposite effect to something else and can be used to limit the bad effects of something. E.g. The accused's right to silence was a vital counterbalance to the powers of the police.

(formal) to have an equal but opposite effect to something else. E.g.  Parents' natural desire to protect their children should be counterbalanced by the child's need for independence. The fact that he cannot see is more than counterbalanced by his heightened perception of sound and touch. We aim to counterbalance management jargon with plain understandable English.
[singular] credit to somebody/something a person or thing whose qualities or achievements are praised and who therefore earns respect for somebody/something else. E.g. She is a credit to the school. Your children are a great credit to you. You are a credit to the force (the police or a group of organized people).

[uncountable] credit (for something) praise or approval because you are responsible for something good that has happened. E.g. He's a player who rarely seems to get the credit he deserves. I can't take all the credit for the show's success—it was a team effort. We did all the work and she gets all the credit! Credit will be given in the exam for good spelling and grammar. At least give him credit for trying (= praise him because he tried, even if he did not succeed). His courage brought great credit to his regiment.

get one over (on) somebody/something
(informal) to get an advantage over somebody/something. E.g. I'm not going to let them get one over on me!
  Maybe you should go and see her and show her she's not nearly clever enough to get one over on the great Father Brown 
proactive: (of a person or policy) controlling a situation by making things happen rather than waiting for things to happen and then reacting to them. E.g. a proactive approach Managers must be proactive in identifying and preventing potential problems.
reactiveshowing a reaction or response. E.g. The police presented a reactive rather than preventive strategy against crime.

carbon dioxide: /ˌkɑːbən daɪˈɒksaɪd/  CO2. a gas breathed out by people and animals from the lungs or produced by burning carbon.

carbon monoxide: /ˌkɑːbən mənˈɒksaɪd/   (symbol COa poisonous gas formed when carbon burns partly but not completely. It is produced when petrol/gas is burnt in car engines.

felicity: /fəˈlɪsəti/ [uncountable] great happiness.

gruelling /ˈɡruːəlɪŋ/ very difficult and tiring, needing great effort for a long time. E.g. a gruelling journey/schedule I've had a gruelling day.

on the cards (British English) (North American English in the cards)
(informal) likely to happen. The merger has been on the cards for some time now.

commit: [transitive, often passive] to promise sincerely that you will definitely do something, keep to an agreement or arrangement, etc. commit somebody/yourself (to something/to doing something) The President is committed to reforming health care. Borrowers should think carefully before committing themselves to taking out a loan. commit somebody/yourself to do something Both sides committed themselves to settle the dispute peacefully.  

discrepancy a difference between two or more things that should be the same. E.g. discrepancy (in something) wide discrepancies in prices quoted for the work discrepancy (between A and B) What are the reasons for the discrepancy between girls' and boys' performance in school?

have ants in your pants
(informal) to be very excited or impatient about something and unable to stay still

meritocracy: /ˌmerɪˈtɒkrəsi/
1. [countable, uncountable] a country or social system where people get power or money on the basis of their ability.
2.  the meritocracy [singular] the group of people with power in this kind of social system.

industriously/ɪnˈdʌstriəsli/ in a way that uses a lot of effort. E.g. Marco was working industriously at his desk.

industrious An industrious person works hard E.g. an industrious worker. She's extremely competent and industrious.
stoic: (also stoical /ˈstəʊɪkl/)  able to suffer pain or trouble without complaining or showing what you are feeling. E.g. her stoic endurance. his stoical acceptance of death.  From the Stoics, a group of ancient Greek philosophers, who believed that wise people should not allow themselves to be affected by painful or pleasant experiences.
E.g. aim for something We should aim for a bigger share of the market. aim at something The government is aiming at a 50% reduction in unemployment. aim to do something They are aiming to reduce unemployment by 50%. We aim to be there around six. aim at doing something They're aiming at training everybody by the end of the year. 

spectatora person who is watching an event, especially a sports event.

cinematic: /ˌsɪnəˈmætɪk/  connected with films/movies and how they are made. E.g. cinematic effects/techniques.

replicant: (in science fiction) an artificial being that is created as an exact copy of a particular human being. E.g. Ford played Rick Deckard, a retired police officer tasked with tracking down escaped replicants.  

as to something, as regards something
used when you are referring to something. E.g. As to tax, that will be deducted from your salary.

based (on something) if one thing is based on another, it uses it or is developed from it. E.g. The movie is based on a real-life incident. The report is based on figures from six different European cities. 

chalk and talk: a formal method of teaching, in which the focal points are the blackboard and the teacher's voice, as contrasted with more informal child-centred activities.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.[1] In order for a conflict to be considered a proxy war, there must be a direct, long-term relationship between external actors and the belligerents involved.[2] The aforementioned relationship usually takes the form of funding, military training, arms, or other forms of material assistance which assist a belligerent party in sustaining its war effort
1. [uncountable] the authority that you give to somebody to do something for you, when you cannot do it yourself. You can vote either in person or by proxy (Sp. por poderes). a proxy vote.2.  [countable, uncountable] a person who has been given the authority to represent somebody else. Sp. representante. E.g. Your proxy will need to sign the form on your behalf. They were like proxy parents to me. proxy for somebody She is acting as proxy for her husband. (Sp. en representación de)
kingpin: the most important person in an organization or activity.
plutocrat/ˈpluːtəkræt/ a person who is powerful because of their wealth
awry: /əˈraɪ/ if something goes awry, it does not happen in the way that was planned. Sp. salir mal. E.g. All my plans for the party had gone awry. All her carefully laid plans had gone awry.

Shine a light on = to make something clear or easier to understand by giving more details or a simpler explanation
cut a tooth​(of a baby) to grow a new tooth. E.g. The baby's cutting a tooth. That's why she's crying.

cut your teeth (on something)
to do something that gives you your first experience of a particular type of work.  Acquire initial practice or experience of a particular sphere of activity. If you say that someone cut their teeth doing a particular thing, at a particular time, or in a particular place, you mean that that is how, when, or where they began their career and learned some of their skills. E.g. She cut her teeth on local radio. the brothers cut their professional teeth at Lusardi's before starting their own restaurant.....director John Glen, who cut his teeth on Bond movies. She had cut her teeth at local radio stations, but made her name on a reality show.
job lot: a collection of different things, especially of poor quality, that are sold together. E.g. I bought a job lot of second-hand children's books at an auction. a job lot of stuff I bought from a demolition firm. Kitchen doors to be sold in one job lot. Due to our shop closing we are selling the remaining stock in one job lot.
proffer: /ˈprɒfə(r)/
1.  proffer something (to somebody) | proffer somebody something to offer something to somebody, by holding it out to them. E.g. ‘Try this,’ she said, proffering a plate. He bent forward to kiss her proffered cheek.
2. to offer something such as advice or an explanation. E.g. proffer something (to somebody) What advice would you proffer to someone starting up in business? They are particularly able to proffer advice and warnings through the many channels open to them. proffer somebody something What advice would you proffer her? proffer itself A solution proffered itself.  
jaded: tired and bored, usually because you have had too much of something. E.g. I felt terribly jaded after working all weekend. It was a meal to tempt even the most jaded palate.
BrE /dɪˈveləp/
past simple developed
BrE /dɪˈveləpt/
-ing form developing



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