Wednesday, 1 February 2012

Objective Proficiency p 124. Vocabulary

Ex 1
  • Scare: (used especially in newspapers) a situation in which a lot of people are anxious or frightened about something. E.g. a bomb/health scare. Recent scares about pesticides in food. A scare story (= a news report that spreads more anxiety or fear about something than is necessary). To cause a major scare. Scare tactics (= ways of persuading people to do something by frightening them).
  • Complacent (about somebody/something): /kəmˈpleɪsnt/ (usually disapproving) too satisfied with yourself or with a situation, so that you do not feel that any change is necessary. E.g. a dangerously complacent attitude to the increase in unemployment. We must not become complacent about progress.
Ex 2 
  • To date: until now. E.g. To date, we have received over 200 replies. The exhibition contains some of his best work to date. 
  • Prey on/upon somebody/something: 1 (of an animal or a bird) to hunt and kill another animal for food. E.g. Hawks prey on rodents and small birds. Sp. cazar, alimentarse de. 2 To harm somebody who is weaker than you, or make use of them in a dishonest way to get what you want. Sp. explotar, aprovecharse de. E.g. Bogus (false) social workers have been preying on old people living alone. It's relatively easy to prey on people's preoccupation with their health.
  • Complacency: / kəmˈpleɪsnsi/ (usually disapproving) a feeling of satisfaction with yourself or with a situation, so that you do not think any change is necessary. E.g. Despite signs of an improvement in the economy, there is no room for complacency.
  • Confection: /kənˈfekʃn/ 1 (formal) a cake or other sweet food that looks very attractive. 2 a thing such as a building or piece of clothing, that is made in a skilful or complicated way. E.g. Her hat was an elaborate confection of satin and net. 3 (figurative) fabrication. Sp. invención. E.g. this is just a media confection.
  • Communicable: /kəˈmjuːnɪkəbl/ that somebody can pass on to other people or communicate to somebody else. E.g. communicable diseases. The value of the product must be communicable to the potential consumers.
  • Spook: to frighten a person or an animal; to become frightened. E.g. We were spooked by the strange noises and lights. 
  • Strike somebody down: struck struck [usually passive]1 (of a disease, etc.) to make somebody unable to lead an active life; to make somebody seriously ill; to kill somebody. E.g. He was struck down by cancer at the age of thirty. 2 to hit somebody very hard, so that they fall to the ground.
  • Miserly: /ˈmaɪzəli/ 1. (of a person) hating to spend money. Mean. 2 (quantity) a miserly amount is very small and not enough. E.g. their miserly offer is unlikely to be accepted. Miserliness (noun) Sp. avaricia.
  • Margarine: /ˌmɑːdʒəˈriːn/
  • Line: an attitude or a belief, especially one that somebody states publicly. E.g. The government is taking a firm line on terrorism. He supported the official line on education. 
  • Lobby: a group of people who try to influence politicians on a particular issue. Sp. grupo de presión. E.g. The gun lobby is/are against any change in the law. 
  • Discount: /dɪsˈkaʊnt/ 1 to think or say that something is not important or not true. Dismiss. Sp. descartar, no tener en cuenta. E.g. We cannot discount the possibility of further strikes. The news reports were being discounted as propaganda. 2 to take an amount of money off the usual cost of something. E.g. discounted prices/fares. Most of our stock has been discounted by up to 40%. 
  • Deprive somebody/something of something: /dɪˈpraɪv/ to prevent somebody from having or doing something, especially something important. Sp. Privar. E.g. They were imprisoned and deprived of their basic rights. Why should you deprive yourself of such simple pleasures?
  • Clog: to block something or to become blocked. Clog something (up) (with something) The narrow streets were clogged with traffic. Tears clogged her throat. Clog (up) (with something) Within a few years the pipes began to clog up.
  • Noise: information that is not wanted and that can make it difficult for the important or useful information to be seen clearly. Background noise: noise that can be heard in addition to the main thing you are listening to. Sp. Ruido de fondo.  
  • Fallacious: /fəˈleɪʃəs/ wrong; based on a false idea. Sp. erróneo, engañoso. E.g. a fallacious argument.

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