Objective Proficiency p 26. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1


 How Does the Weather Affect Your Mood?

Ex 2
  • Grain: a very small amount. E.g. There isn't a grain of truth in those rumours.
  • Serotonin: /ˌserəˈtəʊnɪn/ a chemical in the brain that affects how messages are sent from the brain to the body, and also affects how a person feels. E.g. Winds have been associated with the rise in the levels of serotonin.
  • The föhn: /fɜːn/ a hot wind that blows in the Alps. The Föhn is said to be responsible for traffic accidents rising by fifty per cent.   
  • Buffet: /ˈbʌfɪt/ to knock or push somebody/something roughly from side to side. Sacudir, zarandear. E.g. To be buffeted by the wind. The nation had been buffeted by a wave of strikes.
  • Canyon: /ˈkænjən/ a deep valley with steep sides of rock. E.g. The Grand Canyon, Arizona.
  • Defendant: /dɪˈfendənt/ the person in a trial who is accused of committing a crime, or who is being sued by another person. Acusado. E.g. Defendants in crimes of passion were able to plead for leniency.  
  • Plead: to ask somebody for something in a very strong and serious way. Suplicar. E.g. I was forced to plead for my child's life. He knelt in front of the king, pleading for mercy.
  • Leniency: /ˈliːniənsi/ not as strict as expected when punishing somebody or when making sure that rules are obeyed. Indulgencia. E.g. She appealed to the judge for leniency
  • Cite: /saɪt/ to mention something as a reason or an example, or in order to support what you are saying. E.g. He cited his heavy workload as the reason for his breakdown. 
  • Extenuating: /ɪkˈstenjueɪtɪŋ/ showing reasons why a wrong or illegal act, or a bad situation, should be judged less seriously or excused. Atenuante. E.g. There were extenuating circumstances and the defendant did not receive a prison sentence. Cases of illness and other extenuating circumstances that may have affected a student's performance will be dealt with by a personal tutor.
  • Prize: to value something highly. E.g. An era when honesty was prized above all other virtues.
  • Ion: /ˈaɪən/ an atom or a molecule with a positive or negative electric charge caused by its losing or gaining one or more electrons. 
  • Invigorating: /ɪnˈvɪɡəreɪtɪŋ/ to make somebody feel healthy and full of energy. Estimulante. E.g. The sea air is invigorating. They felt refreshed and invigorated after the walk.
Suggested answers
a. there are 50% more traffic accidents and 20% more industrial injuries.

b. the air will make you feel invigorated.

c. the number of murders would rise.

d. if there hadn’t been a Santa Ana blowing.

e. you leave Switzerland during a Föhn

f. I would go to California if I wanted to murder my husband.

Ex 3


a Zero conditional used for general truths.

b First conditional used when something is possible.

c Second conditional used to talk about something that is unreal and is improbable.

d Third conditional to talk about something impossible.

e Zero conditional to talk about a general truth.

f Second conditional to talk about something which is unreal or improbable.

  • Tentative: /ˈtentətɪv/ not definite or certain because you may want to change it later. Provisional. E.g. We made a tentative arrangement to meet on Friday. Tentative conclusions
  • Liable to sth: /ˈlaɪəbl / likely to be affected by something. E.g. Given that this area is liable to flood, it would be unwise in the extreme to consider buying a house here. 
Corpus spot

unless he succumbs to the temptation of laziness
if he does not succumb to the temptation of laziness

succumb: /səˈkʌm/ to not be able to fight an attack, an illness, a temptation, etc. Sp. sucumbir, ceder. E.g. succumb to something His career was cut short when he succumbed to cancer. He finally succumbed to Lucy's charms and agreed to her request. She succumbed to the temptation of another drink.

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