Sunday, 18 December 2011

Objective Proficiency p 79. Vocabulary

Ex 5
a refers to person talking - conscious of themselves

b wrongly heard

c going against something, not productive

d for something, in favour

e too much of something

f under/ below

g more than - here it is more than human

h against something

i before - arranged before

j to do more in the sense of competition here

k less - the idea that something isn't given its true worth

Ex 6
a self-contained 
Self-contained: having its own kitchen, bathroom and entrance. E.g. self-contained accommodation.

b sub-tropical
Subtropical: /ˌsʌbˈtrɒpɪkl/ in or connected with regions that are near tropical parts of the world. E.g. subtropical vegetation. A subtropical climate.

c has outlived
Outlive something: to continue to exist after something else has ended or disappeared. Sp Sobrevivir. E.g. The machine had outlived its usefulness (= was no longer useful).

d underestimate 
Underestimate somebody/something: /ˌʌndərˈestɪmeɪt/ to not realize how good, strong, determined, etc. somebody really is. Sp. Subestimar. E.g. Never underestimate your opponent. Their ability should not be underestimated.
Cunning: /ˈkʌnɪŋ/ the ability to achieve something by tricking or cheating other people in a clever way. Astucia. E.g. It took energy and cunning just to survive. She used low cunning (= dishonest behaviour) to get what she wanted.

e misunderstanding

f pre-packed 
Pre-packed: (also pre-packaged) put into packages before being sent to shops/stores to be sold. Sp. Preenvasado. E.g. pre-packed sandwiches

g super-concentrated 

h anti-lock
Anti-lock brakes stop the wheels of a vehicle locking if you have to stop suddenly, and so make the vehicle easier to control. E.g. an anti-lock braking system or ABS.

i overhear
overhear to hear, especially by accident, a conversation in which you are not involved. E.g. We overheard them arguing. I overheard him say he was going to France.

j counter-argument
Counter-argument: an argument in opposition to another.
Back down: to take back a demand, an opinion, etc. that other people are strongly opposed to; to admit defeat. E.g. She refused to back down on a point of principle.

k pro-American 

More vocabulary:
  • Overcook something:to cook food for too long.
  • Undercook something:to not cook something for long enough, with the result that it is not ready to eat.
  • Charred: /ˈtʃɑːd/ burnt and black. Sp. Carbonizado. E.g. the charred remains of a burnt-out car.
Ex 7
Die out: to stop existing. E.g. This species has nearly died out because its habitat is being destroyed.

1. would / does 

2. intents
To all intents and purposes: used for saying that although something is not exactly true or accurate, the situation is the same as if it were true or accurate. Sp. A todos los efectos. E.g. They run a car that to all intents and purposes is a commercial delivery vehicle. By 1981 the docks had, to all intents and purposes, closed. The two items are, to all intents and purposes, identical.

3. time

4. tell/ see

5 between 

En route: /ˌɒn ˈruːt/ on the way; while travelling from/to a particular place. E.g. We stopped for a picnic en route. The bus broke down en route from Boston to New York. 

6 say
Undergo something: to experience something, especially a change or something unpleasant. Sp. Experimentar, sufrir, someterse. E.g. to undergo tests/trials/repairs. My mother underwent major surgery last year. Some children undergo a complete transformation when they become teenagers. 
Sea change: a strong and noticeable change in a situation. E.g. It was one of those momentous events that cause a sea change in public attitudes. 

7 our 

8 into 

9 come

Come as no surprise: E.g. It comes as no surprise to learn that they broke their promises. 

10. such 

11. ourselves 

Dress down: to wear clothes that are more informal than those you usually wear, for example in an office.
Dress up: to wear clothes that are more formal than those you usually wear. E.g. There's no need to dress up—come as you are.

12 out

13 being

14 when

15 do

  • Scruffy: dirty or untidy. Shabby. Desaliñado. E.g. He looked a little scruffy. Scruffy pair of jeans.
  • Alienate somebody (from something/somebody): /ˈeɪliəneɪt/ to make somebody feel that they do not belong in a particular group. Sp. Distanciarse. E.g. Very talented children may feel alienated from the others in their class. Social workers mustn't dress too smartly, because that would alienate them from their clients, who usually can't afford smart clothes.

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