Thursday, 15 December 2011

Objective Proficiency p 76. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1
  • Streetwise: /ˈstriːtwaɪz/ having the knowledge and experience that is needed to deal with the difficulties and dangers of life in a big city. Sp. Espabilado. E.g. Kids seem much more streetwise these days.
  • Keep up with: to learn about or be aware of the news, current events, etc. Sp. Mantenerse al día. E.g. She likes to keep up with the latest fashions.
Ex 2
  • Glitzy: very attractive, exciting and impressive, in a way that is not always genuine, with no real value. Sp. Glamoroso, deslumbrante. E.g. a glitzy, Hollywood-style occasion. A glitzy television show.
  • Chinos: /ˈtʃiːnəʊz/ informal trousers/pants made from strong cotton. E.g. a pair of chinos.
Ex 3 (2002 Edition)


a snap
Snap: (adj) made or done quickly and without careful thought or preparation. Sp. repentino.E.g. It was a snap decision. They held a snap election. I try not to make snap judgements on people when I first meet them. A snap answer (Sp. respuesta sin pensar).

abrupt:  /əˈbrʌpt/ 1 sudden and unexpected, often in an unpleasant way. Sp. abrupto. E.g. an abrupt change/ halt/ departure. The accident brought his career to an abrupt end. 2 speaking or acting in a way that seems unfriendly and rude; not taking time to say more than is necessary. E.g. an abrupt manner. She was very abrupt with me in our meeting.

b down
Dress down: to wear clothes that are more informal than those you usually wear, for example in an office. E.g. Sue dressed down in old jeans and a white blouse.

c code
dress code: rules about what clothes people should wear at work. E.g. The company has a strict dress code—all male employees are expected to wear suits.

d paramount

Paramount: /ˈpærəmaʊnt/ more important than anything else. E.g. This matter is of paramount importance. Safety is paramount.

e speaks
Speak volumes (about/for something/somebody): to tell you a lot about something/ somebody, without the need for words. E.g. His achievement speaks volumes for his determination.What you wear speaks volumes about you.

f tip
The tip of the iceberg: only a small part of a much larger problem. E.g. This figure represents only the tip of the iceberg, since as many as 90% of cases go unreported.

g laid
Laid-back: calm and relaxed; seeming not to worry about anything. E.g. a laid-back attitude to life. She's very laid-back about her exams.

lean (+ adverb/preposition) to bend or move from a vertical position. E.g. I leaned back in my chair.

h harboured
Grudge (against somebody): a feeling of anger or dislike towards somebody because of something bad they have done to you in the past. Sp. Rencor. E.g. I bear him no grudge. He has a grudge against the world. She has harboured a grudge against me for years. I don't hold any grudges now. He's a man with a grudge. England beat New Zealand in a grudge match (= a match where there is strong dislike between the teams).

i foster 
Foster: to encourage something to develop. Encourage, promote. Sp. Fomentar, promover. E.g. The club's aim is to foster better relations within the community.

j constrained
Constrain: /kənˈstreɪn/ to restrict or limit somebody/ something. E.g. Research has been constrained by a lack of funds. Men and women are becoming less constrained by stereotyped roles.
Subdue: /səbˈdjuː/ to bring somebody/ something under control, especially by using force. Defeat. Sp. Someter, dominar. E.g. Troops were called in to subdue the rebels. 

k detrimental
Detrimental: /ˌdetrɪˈmentl/ harmful. Damaging. Sp. Perjudicial. E.g. the sun's detrimental effect on skin. The policy will be detrimental to the peace process. This move could be seriously detrimental to the economy.
Injurious: /ɪnˈdʒʊəriəs/ causing or likely to cause harm or damage. Damaging. Injurious things should be avoided. They cause pain, harm, and — yes — injuries. Handle with care! If you know what an injury is, you have a head start on learning injurious. Anything injurious is dangerous. At a construction site, almost anything could be injurious, if you don't know what you're doing (or even if you do). Falling off a ladder could be very injurious. Even crossing the street can have injurious effects if you're hit by a car. If this word turns up in your diary a dozen times, you're probably in the hospital. Sp. Perjudicial. E.g. Products that are injurious to health. Injurious effects. The Transportation Department said it believes allowing passengers to make cellphone calls may be harmful or injurious to others.

l nines
Dressed (up) to the nines: (informal) wearing very elegant or formal clothes.

Go off: to leave a place, especially in order to do something. E.g. She went off to get a drink. 

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