Saturday, 24 December 2011

Objective Proficiency p 85. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 4
a. the death of a language

b. Kasabe

c. the 6,000 languages

d. the fact that half are going to die out

e. languages

f. language death

g. language death

h what we learn from a language

i some people

Ex 5
a. made an impact/ been considered a matter of some importance

b. People start out by being forced to speak the majority language. Then there is a period when both languages are spoken and finally the old language is totally forgotten and the majority language takes over.

c. You need to have a wide range of species of animals for a healthy environment. The same is true of different cultures.

d. If you lose a language you lose more than just a method of communication.

e. medical treatments, early civilisations, new ideas about language itself.

f. One language is not enough to hold all human/world knowledge

Ex 7

  • Pidgin: /ˈpɪdʒɪn/ a simple form of a language, especially English, Portuguese or Dutch, with a limited number of words, that are used together with words from a local language. It is used when people who do not speak the same language need to talk to each other.
  • Creole: /ˈkriːəʊl/ a language formed when a mixture of a European language with a local language (especially an African language spoken by slaves in the West Indies) is spoken as a first language.
1. D contact
A approximation is used for a piece of guesswork
B acquaintance is for a person who you only know slightly
C link is also used with between but in the sense of two things having sth in common
  • Guesswork: the process of trying to find an answer by guessing when you do not have enough information to be sure. E.g. It was pure guesswork on our part.

2. D arise
A issue, B stem and C spring all have the idea of come from. An idea can stem from or spring from. A declaration is issued.
issue something to produce something such as a magazine, article, etc. E.g. We issue a monthly newsletter.

3. A prestige /preˈstiːʒ/
B credit takes the preposition from and C esteem and D stature don't collocate with the idea of language
esteem: /ɪˈstiːm/ great respect and admiration; a good opinion of somebody. E.g. She is held in high esteem by her colleagues.

stature: /ˈstætʃə(r)/ the importance and respect that a person has because of their ability and achievements. E.g. an actress of considerable stature. The orchestra has grown in stature.

4. A based
A takes the word on in this context. 

derive  /dɪˈraɪv/ derive from something. To come or develop from something. E.g. The word ‘politics’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘city’.

build something of/in/from something E.g. a house built of stone. Apartment blocks built in brick and concrete.

hinge on something | hinge upon something (of an action, a result, etc.) to depend on something completely. E.g. Everything hinges on the outcome of these talks. Hinge on/upon how, what, etc… His success hinges on how well he does at the interview.

5. D heavily
It collocates with rely on 

6. C Once
Once here has the meaning of when 

7. B expand
A language may expand, feet swell when they are hot, you can enlarge a photo. Prices increase

8. A perspective
It takes the preposition from 
outlook (on something) the attitude to life and the world of a particular person, group or culture. E.g. He had a practical outlook on life. Most Western societies are liberal in outlook. 

context: E.g. in (a/the) ~ Similar problems have arisen in other contexts. | within a/the ~ You've got to look at these remarks within the context of the recent scandals. | ~ for a neutral context for sharing and debating ideas.

view: E.g.  in your ~ In my view it was a waste of time. | ~ about Teachers generally keep their views about politics hidden. | ~ on Experts hold widely differing views on this subject.


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