Tuesday, 27 December 2011

Objective Proficiency p 88. Vocabulary

Ex. 1
  • Niger: /niːˈʒeə/
Ex 3
  • Tamper with something: to make changes to something without permission, especially in order to damage it. Alter. Falsificar, alterar. E.g. Rich countries are tampering with statistics. Someone had obviously tampered with the brakes of my car.
  • A dumping ground: a place where you put things you don't want. A tip (a place where you can take rubbish/garbage and leave it).
Extract 1
  • Vignette: /vɪnˈjet/  a short piece of writing or acting that clearly shows what a particular person, situation, etc. is like. Estampa. E.g. a charming vignette of Edwardian life.
  • Paraphernalia: /ˌpærəfəˈneɪliə/ a large number of objects or personal possessions, especially the equipment that you need for a particular activity. E.g. skiing paraphernalia. An electric kettle and all the paraphernalia for making tea and coffee.
  • Propel somebody + adverb/preposition: to force somebody to move in a particular direction or to get into a particular situation. Impulsar. E.g. He was grabbed from behind and propelled through the door. Fury propelled her into action.
  • Guru:  /ˈɡʊruː/ a person who is an expert on a particular subject or who is very good at doing something. E.g. a management/health/fashion, etc. guru. Jean-Paul Sartre was the guru of post-war French philosophy.
  • Spring up, sprang up,sprung up: to appear or develop quickly and/or suddenly. E.g. Play areas for children are springing up all over the place. Opposition groups are springing up like mushrooms.
  • Tribulation: /ˌtrɪbjuˈleɪʃn/ great trouble or suffering. E.g. the tribulations of modern life.
  • Trials and tribulations: the difficulties and problems involved in something. E.g.They soon came to learn about the trials and tribulations of parenthood.
  • Sovereignty: /ˈsɒvrənti/ complete power to govern a country.
Extract 2
  • Strain: pressure on somebody/something because they have too much to do or manage, or something very difficult to deal with; the problems, worry or anxiety that this produces. E.g. Their marriage is under great strain at the moment. These repayments are putting a strain on our finances. Relax, and let us take the strain (= do things for you). The transport service cannot cope with the strain of so many additional passengers. You will learn to cope with the stresses and strains of public life. I found it a strain having to concentrate for so long. There are strains in the relationship between the two countries. 
  • Stake (out) a/your claim (to/for/on something): to say or show publicly that you think something should be yours. Reclamar el derecho. E.g. Adams staked his claim for a place in the Olympic team with his easy win yesterday. 
  • In (a)… fashion: (formal) in a particular way. E.g. How could they behave in such a fashion? She was proved right, in dramatic fashion, when the whole department resigned. In a similar/orderly/spectacular etc fashion. Voting was conducted in a peaceful and orderly fashion. 
  • Spring, sprang, sprung up: to appear or develop quickly and/or suddenly. E.g. Play areas for children are springing up all over the place. Opposition groups are springing up like mushrooms.
  • Hold (on/over somebody/something): influence, power or control over somebody/something. E.g. What she knew about his past gave her a hold over him. He struggled to get a hold of his anger.
Extract 3 
  • Benign: /bɪˈnaɪn/ kind and gentle; not hurting anybody. E.g. You would never have guessed his intentions from the benign expression on his face.
  • Daunting: making somebody feel nervous and less confident about doing something. Intimidating. Desalentador. De enormes proporciones. E.g. She was a brave woman but she felt daunted by the task ahead.
  • Share (of/in something): one part of something that is divided between two or more people. E.g. How much was your share of the winnings? Next year we hope to have a bigger share of the market.  
  • Tar: a sticky poisonous substance from tobacco that people who smoke cigarettes get in their lungs. Alquitrán. E.g. low-tar cigarettes.
  • Pillage: /ˈpɪlɪdʒ/ the act of stealing things from a place or region, especially in a war, using violence. Saqueo. E.g. They brought back horrific accounts of murder and pillage.
  • Abound: to exist in great numbers or quantities. Abundar. E.g. Stories about his travels abound.

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