Monday, 5 December 2011

Objective Proficiency p 66. Cool Brazil. Extra Word Formation

For any 1________________ (URBAN), Curitiba is a place of 2______________ (PILGRIM), thanks 3________________ (LARGE) to Jaime Lerner, the mayor whose 4___________ (INITIATE) in the 1970s 5______________ (SURE) Curitiba would become one of the most 6___________ (PROSPER) cities in Brazil. Lerner developed a set of solutions that were 7_____________ (ORDER) lateral 8______________ (THINK), extremely 9____________ (COST), visual in a 10____________ (SYMBOL) way, and 11_____________ (POLITICS) astute. At that time, Rio and Sao Paulo were planning metro systems, but with a population of just half a million then, this couldn't be justified for Curitiba. Lerner decided that his city would have a 'bus metro' instead, for a fraction of the cost. Twenty bus stations were built at intervals along the main arteries, plus another five in the 12______________ (WIDE) metro area, to allow 13________________ (CHANGE) between express and local services. As traffic built up and the system expanded, the problem of capacity was tackled in two ways. First, express buses were coupled together, and then extended further into "expresso biarticulado" units, to carry a 14__________________ (STAGGER) 270 people at peak hours. More 15_______________ (SIGNIFY), the 16_____________ (INNOVATE) design of the Curitiba bus shelter- a glass tube entered through a 17______________ (TURN) using a token- means that in a trice, buses empty, fill up and are gone. So popular has the system become that, despite high car 18_____________________ (OWN), it now carries nearly two million passengers each day. 



KEY

1. urbanist
urbanist: /ˈərbənist/ a specialist in city planning. E.g. Many urbanists say that public life in the eighteenth century - which is when the modern city began to take shape - was available only to men. Chicago's recent endeavour, the Chicago Riverwalk Construction, appears to be a hot topic for many urbanists.



2. pilgrimage



3. largely
largely: to a great extent; mostly or mainly. E.g. the manager who is largely responsible for the team's victory. It was largely a matter of trial and error. He resigned largely because of the stories in the press.
 
 
 
4. initiatives
 
 
 
5. ensured 
 
 
 
6. prosperous 
 
 
 
7. extraordinarily /ɪkˈstrɔːdnrəli/
 
 
 
8. thinking 
lateral thinking: a way of solving problems by using your imagination to find new ways of looking at the problem. E.g. the service was developed using just creative and lateral thinking without any extra funding.
 
 
 
9. cost-effective
cost-effective: giving the best possible profit or benefits in comparison with the money that is spent. E.g. a cost-effective way to fight crime.
 
 
 
10. symbolic 
 
 
 
11. politically 
 
 
Astute: /əˈstjuːt/ very clever and quick at seeing what to do in a particular situation, especially how to get an advantage. Shrewd. E.g. an astute businessman/politician/observer. It was an astute move to sell the shares then. She was astute enough to realize that what Jack wanted was her money.
 
 
 
12. wider
metro: /ˈmetrəʊ/ (metropolitan) E.g. the New York metro areas.
 
 
 
13. interchange
interchange:  (n) The act of interchanging. A station where passengers may change from one railway line, bus service, etc. to another. E.g. the town’s famous rail interchange. 

build up (to something) to become greater, more powerful or larger in number. E.g. All the pressure built up and he was off work for weeks with stress. The music builds up to a rousing climax.
 
Couple: to join together two parts of something, for example two vehicles or pieces of equipment.  couple A and B together E.g. The two train cars had been coupled together.
 
 
 
14. staggering
staggering: so great, shocking or surprising that it is difficult to believe. Astounding. E.g. They paid a staggering £5 million for the house.
 
stagger: to shock or surprise somebody very much. Amaze. E.g. It staggers me that the government is doing nothing about it.
 
peak: used to describe the highest level of something, or a time when the greatest number of people are doing something or using something. E.g. It was a time of peak demand for the product. March is one of the peak periods for our business. The athletes are all in peak condition. We need extra help during the peak season.    
 
 
 
15. significantly 
 
 
 
16. innovative /ˈɪnəveɪtɪv/ /ˈɪnəvətɪv/
 
 
 
17. turnstile 
Turnstile: /ˈtɜːnstaɪl/ a gate at the entrance to a public building, stadium, etc. that turns in a circle when pushed, allowing one person to go through at a time 
 
 
stile: a set of steps that help people climb over a fence or gate in a field, etc.
 

 
 
Token: a round piece of metal or plastic used instead of money to operate some machines or as a form of payment. E.g. a parking token.
 
 

 In a trice: / traɪs/ very quickly or suddenly. E.g. He was gone in a trice.
 
 
 
18. ownership 
  

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