Objective Proficiency p 110. Vocabulary

Ex 1
  • Heap (of something): an untidy pile of something. Sp. montón. E.g. The building was reduced to a heap of rubble. A compost heap. His clothes lay in a heap on the floor. Worn-out car tyres were stacked in heaps. A rubbish heap.
  • Smog: a form of air pollution that is or looks like a mixture of smoke and fog, especially in cities
  • attempts to reduce smog caused by traffic fumes.
  • Halt: to stop; to make somebody/something stop. E.g. She walked towards him and then halted. I would try to halt global warming by curbing the use of cars.
  • Curb something /kɜːb/ to control or limit something, especially something bad. Check. Sp. poner freno, controlar. E.g He needs to learn to curb his temper. A range of policies have been introduced aimed at curbing inflation. 
Ex 2 
  • Carrier bag: a paper or plastic bag for carrying shopping.
  • Disposable: /dɪˈspəʊzəbl/ made to be thrown away after use. Sp. desechable. E.g. disposable gloves/razors. Disposable nappies (British English). Disposable diapers (North American English).
  • Thermostat: /ˈθɜːməstæt/ a device that measures and controls the temperature of a machine or room, by switching the heating or cooling system on and off as necessary. E.g. turn down the thermostat.
  • Stationery: /ˈsteɪʃənri / 1 materials for writing and for using in an office, for example paper, pens and envelopes. 2 special paper for writing letters on
Recycled stationery paper:

  • Drip: to produce drops of liquid. E.g. The tap was dripping. Be careful, you're dripping paint everywhere!
  • Biodegradable: /ˌbaɪəʊdɪˈɡreɪdəbl/ a substance or chemical that is biodegradable can be changed to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria, and will therefore not damage the environment. Opposite: non-biodegradable. E.g. All active ingredients of this soap powder are 98% biodegradable within three days.
  • Herbicide: /ˈhɜːbɪsaɪd/ a chemical that is poisonous to plants, used to kill plants that are growing where they are not wanted.
  • Insecticide: /ɪnˈsektɪsaɪd/ 
Ex 3 
  • Get across (to somebody)/ get something across (to somebody): to be communicated or understood; to succeed in communicating something. E.g. Your meaning didn't really get across. He's not very good at getting his ideas across.
  • Landslide: /ˈlændslaɪd / a mass of earth, rock, etc. that falls down the slope of a mountain or a cliff. Sp. desprendimiento. E.g. The house was buried beneath a landslide.
  • Susceptible: /səˈseptəbl/ susceptible (to somebody/something) very likely to be influenced, harmed or affected by somebody/something. Sp. Propens a. E.g. He's highly susceptible to flattery (se le puede persuadir alagándolo). Some of these plants are more susceptible to frost damage than others. Salt intake may lead to raised blood pressure in susceptible adults.There are few known diseases which are not susceptible to medical treatment. This type of rock is susceptible to landslides.
  • Downwind: in the direction in which the wind is blowing. E.g. sailing downwind. Downwind of something Warnings were issued to people living downwind of the fire to stay indoors. He went downwind of the animals.
  • Sight: a thing that you see or can see. E.g. It's a spectacular sight as the flamingos lift into the air. He was a sorry sight, soaked to the skin and shivering. The bird is now a rare sight in this country. He became a familiar sight on the streets of Oxford.
  • Prove yourself (to somebody): to show other people how good you are at doing something or that you are capable of doing something. E.g. He constantly feels he has to prove himself to others (Sp. demostrar su valía).
  • Amateurish: /ˈæmətərɪʃ/ /ˈæmətʃərɪʃ/  (also amateur / ˈæmətə(r)/ / ˈæmətʃə(r/) not done or made well or with skill. E.g. Detectives described the burglary as ‘crude and amateurish’. Opposite: professional.
  • Alienate: /ˈeɪliəneɪt/ 1 alienate somebody to make somebody less friendly or sympathetic towards you. Sp. ganarse la antipatía de alguien. E.g. His comments have alienated a lot of young voters. 2 alienate somebody (from something/somebody) to make somebody feel that they do not belong in a particular group. Sp. alejar a alguien. E.g. Very talented children may feel alienated from the others in their class. 
Extract 1
  • Rubbish: comments, ideas, etc. that you think are stupid or wrong. Nonsense. E.g. Rubbish! You're not fat. You're talking a load of rubbish. It's not rubbish—it's true!
  • Cut down (on something): to reduce the size, amount or number of something. E.g.The doctor told him to cut down on his drinking. I won't have a cigarette, thanks—I'm trying to cut down (= smoke fewer).
  • Medley: /ˈmedli/ a mixture of people or things of different kinds. E.g. a medley of flavours/smells. The building was a medley of styles from different periods.
  • Top: a thing that you put on the end of something to close it. E.g. Where's the top of this pen? A bottle with a screw top (Sp. tapón de rosca).
  • Keen: 1. enthusiastic about an activity or idea, etc. E.g. a keen sportsman. One of the keenest supporters of the team. She was a star pupil—keen, confident and bright. 2. quick to understand. E.g. a keen mind/ intellect.
  • Rapt: so interested in one particular thing that you are not aware of anything else. Sp. embelesado. E.g. a rapt audience. She listened to the speaker with rapt attention. He watched her with a rapt expression. Jill stared at them blankly, rapt in thought.
  • Rough: not exact; not including all details. Approximate. E.g. a rough calculation/estimate of the cost. I've got a rough idea of where I want to go. There were about 20 people there, at a rough guess. A rough draft of a speech. A rough sketch.
  • Spell something out: to explain something in a simple, clear way. E.g. You know what I mean—I'm sure I don't need to spell it out. Spell out  why, what, etc… Let me spell out why we need more money.
  • Dump: a place where waste or rubbish/garbage is taken and left. Sp. vertedero. E.g. (British English) a rubbish dump. (North American English) a garbage dump. The municipal dump. A toxic/nuclear waste dump.
  • Landfill: 1 [countable, uncountable] an area of land where large amounts of waste material are buried under the earth. Sp. vertedero. E.g. The map shows the position of the new landfills. A landfill site. 2 [uncountable] the process of burying large amounts of waste material. E.g. the choice of landfill or incineration. 3 [uncountable] waste material that will be buried.
  • Roller coaster: a situation that keeps changing very quickly. E.g. The last few weeks have been a real roller coaster. An emotional roller coaster. The roller coaster changes in share prices.
  • Get somebody: (informal) to annoy somebody. E.g. What gets me is having to do the same thing all day long.
Extract 2
  • Chunk: a thick solid piece that has been cut or broken off something. E.g. a chunk of cheese.
  • Be down to somebody/ something: to be caused by a particular person or thing. E.g. She claimed her problems were down to the media.
  • Reverberate: / rɪˈvɜːbəreɪt/ to be repeated several times as it is reflected off different surfaces. Sp. retumbar, resonar. E.g. Her voice reverberated around the hall. The crash reverberated through the house.
  • Sodden: extremely wet. Soaked. E.g. We arrived home completely sodden.
  • The shape of things to come: the way things are likely to develop in the future. E.g. Are solar-powered cars the shape of things to come?
  • Seep: to flow slowly and in small quantities through something or into something. Sp. filtrarse. E.g. blood was beginning to seep through the bandages. Water seeped from a crack in the pipe.
  • Crumble: to break or break something into very small pieces. E.g. Rice flour makes the cake less likely to crumble.
  • Sheer away/off (from something): to change direction suddenly, especially in order to avoid hitting something. Sp. desviarse, cambiar de rumbo. E.g. The car sheered away, just missing the bike. (figurative) Her mind sheered away from images she did not wish to dwell on.
Extract 3 
  • Moor: /mɔː(r)/ /mʊə(r)/ a high open area of land that is not used for farming, especially an area covered with rough grass and heather. Sp. páramo, brezal. E.g. The North York moors. To go for a walk on the moors.
  • Heather: /ˈheðə(r)/ a low wild plant with small purple, pink or white flowers, that grows on hills and areas of wild open land (= moorland ). Sp. Brezo.

  • Dew: /djuː/ the very small drops of water that form on the ground, etc. during the night. Sp. rocío. E.g. The grass was wet with early morning dew.
  • Drench: [often passive] to make somebody/something completely wet. Soak. E.g. We were caught in the storm and got drenched to the skin. His face was drenched with sweat. She drenched herself in perfume.
  • Stag: a male deer.
  • Belligerent: /bəˈlɪdʒərənt/ unfriendly and aggressive. Hostile. E.g. a belligerent attitude. He is always very belligerent towards me. 
  • Clatter: a continuous rattling sound as of hard objects falling or striking each other. Sp. traqueteo. E.g. the horse spun round with a clatter of hooves.
  • Rattle: a series of short loud sounds made when hard objects hit against each other. Sp. traqueteo, ruido E.g. the rattle of gunfire. From the kitchen came a rattling of cups and saucers.
  • Spin, spun, spun: to turn round and round quickly. E.g. The dancers spun round and round.
  • Hoof: plural hoofs or hooves. The hard part of the foot of some animals, for example horses.Sp. pezuña. 
  • Antler: one of the two horns that grow on the head of male deer. Sp. cuerno. E.g. Poachers in search of antlers prey on red deer.
  • Poacher: / ˈpəʊtʃə(r)/ a person who illegally hunts birds, animals or fish on somebody's else's property. Cazador furtivo.
  • Prey on/upon somebody/something:  (of an animal or a bird) to hunt and kill another animal for food. Sp. cazar. E.g. Hawks (halcones) prey on rodents (Sp. roedores) and small birds.
  • Creep, crept, crept: (+ adverb/preposition) (of people or animals) to move slowly, quietly and carefully, because you do not want to be seen or heard. E.g. I crept up the stairs, trying not to wake my parents. I heard someone creeping around the house. 
  • Part: if two things or parts of things part or you part them, they move away from each other. Sp. abrirse. E.g. The crowd parted in front of them. The elevator doors parted and out stepped the President. Her lips were slightly parted. She parted the curtains a little and looked out.
  • Be locked in/into something to be involved in a difficult situation, an argument, a disagreement, etc. E.g. The two sides are locked into a bitter dispute. She felt locked in a loveless marriage. Two stags locked in battle. 
  • Bent on something/on doing something: determined to do something (usually something bad). Sp. estar empeñado. E.g. She seems bent on making life difficult for me. They weren't bent on mutual destruction.
  • Wretched: used to show that you think that somebody/something is extremely annoying. Sp. maldito. E.g. Is it that wretched woman again? The wretched mist came down again. 
  • Blot something out:  to cover or hide something completely. E.g. Clouds blotted out the sun.
  • Bring something home to somebody: to make somebody realize how important, difficult or serious something is. Sp. dejar claro. E.g. The sight of his pale face brought home to me how ill he really was. The television pictures brought home to us the full horror of the attack. 
  • Encroach: /ɪnˈkrəʊtʃ/ to slowly begin to cover more and more of an area. Sp. invadir, ocupar. E.g. The growing town soon encroached on the surrounding countryside. The encroaching tide (= that is coming in). The ever-encroaching hand of so-called progress.
Extract 4
  • Put forward: to suggest something for discussion. E.g. to put forward a suggestion. 
  • Take issue with somebody (about/on/over something): (formal) to start disagreeing or arguing with somebody about something. E.g. I must take issue with you on that point.
  • Denude: /dɪˈnjuːd/ denude something (of something) (formal) to remove the covering, features, etc. from something, so that it is exposed. Sp. despojar. E.g. hillsides denuded of trees.
  • Ravage: /ˈrævɪdʒ/ ravage something to damage something badly. Devastate. E.g. a country ravaged by civil war. A recession that has ravaged the textile industry.
  • Tree-hugger: (informal, usually disapproving) a person who cares very much about the environment and tries to protect it. Sp. ecologista.
  • Weirdo: /ˈwɪədəʊ/ plural weirdos. A person who looks strange and/or behaves in a strange way. Sp. bicho raro. E.g. It's dangerous to be out on your own there are too many weirdos around.
  • Gaia: /ˈɡaɪə/ ( Greek Mythology the Earth personified as a goddess, daughter of Chaos) the Earth, considered as a single natural system which organizes and controls itself. 
  • Enquiry: /ɪnˈkwaɪəri/ the act of asking questions or collecting information about somebody/something. E.g. scientific enquiry.
  • Holistic: /həʊˈlɪstɪk/ /hɒˈlɪstɪk/ considering a whole thing or being to be more than a collection of parts. Sp. integral. E.g. a holistic approach to life.
Ex 4 
  • A play on words: the humorous use of a word or phrase that can have two different meanings. Pun. Sp. juego de palabras.

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