Friday, 20 January 2012

Objective Proficiency p 112. Vocabulary

Ex 1
  • Endanger: /ɪnˈdeɪndʒə(r)/ to put somebody/something in a situation in which they could be harmed or damaged. E.g. The health of our children is being endangered by exhaust fumes. That one mistake seriously endangered the future of the company. The sea turtle is an endangered species (= it may soon no longer exist) 
  • Ascension frigate bird: /əˈsenʃn/ /ˈfrɪɡət/ a tropical bird that lives near the sea, with dark feathers and a long beak with a hook.


  • Gorilla: /ɡəˈrɪlə/ 
  • Bison: /ˈbaɪsn/ 
Ex 2
  • Rhino: /ˈraɪnəʊ/ plural rhinos.
  • Rhinoceros: /raɪˈnɒsərəs/ plural rhinoceros or rhinoceroses.
  • Biodiversity: /ˌbaɪəʊdaɪˈvɜːsəti/ the existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants which make a balanced environment. E.g. The mining project threatens one of the world's richest areas of biodiversity.
  • Range (of something): /reɪndʒ/ a variety of things of a particular type. E.g. The hotel offers a wide range of facilities. There is a full range of activities for children. This material is available in a huge range of colours.
  • Albeit: /ˌɔːlˈbiːɪt/ although. E.g. He finally agreed, albeit reluctantly, to help us.
  • Enclosure: /ɪnˈkləʊʒə(r)/ a piece of land that is surrounded by a fence or wall and is used for a particular purpose. E.g. a wildlife enclosure. In most places rhinos live either in fenced enclosures or under armed guard.
  • Out-of-the-way: far from a town or city. E.g. a little out-of-the-way place on the coast.
  • Roam: /rəʊm/ to walk or travel around an area without any definite aim or direction. Wander. E.g. The sheep are allowed to roam freely on this land. To roam the countryside/the streets, etc.
  • Come to something: to reach a particular situation, especially a bad one. E.g. The doctors will operate if necessary—but it may not come to that. Who'd have thought things would come to this (= become so bad)? 
  • Slaughter: /ˈslɔːtə(r)/ the killing of animals for their meat. E.g. cows taken for slaughter.
  • Launch something: to start an activity, especially an organized one. E.g. To launch an appeal/an inquiry/an investigation/a campaign. To launch an attack/invasion.
  • Poach: /pəʊtʃ/ to illegally hunt birds, animals or fish on somebody else's property or without permission. Sp. Cazar furtivamente. E.g. The elephants are poached for their tusks.
  • Rife: /raɪf/ if something bad or unpleasant is rife in a place, it is very common there. Widespread. E.g. It is a country where corruption is rife. Rumours are rife that he is going to resign.
  • Harsh: /hɑːʃ/ very difficult and unpleasant to live in. E.g. a harsh winter/wind/climate. The harsh conditions of poverty which existed for most people at that time.
  • Thrive: /θraɪv/ to become, and continue to be, successful, strong, healthy, etc. Sp. prosperar, crecer con fuerza. E.g. New businesses thrive in this area. These animals rarely thrive in captivity.    
Ex 3  
  • Gist: /dʒɪst/ (usually the gist) the main or general meaning of a piece of writing, a speech or a conversation. Sp. lo esencial. E.g. to get (= understand) the gist of an argument. I missed the beginning of the lecture—can you give me the gist of what he said? I'm afraid I don't quite follow your gist (= what you really mean). Students are taught the skills of reading and listening for gist.
  • Roam: / rəʊm/ to walk or travel around an area without any definite aim or direction. Wander. E.g. The sheep are allowed to roam freely on this land.  To roam the countryside/the streets, etc.
  • Footprint: /ˈfʊtprɪnt/ a mark left on a surface by a person's foot or shoe or by an animal's foot. E.g. footprints in the sand.
  • Outline: to give a description of the main facts or points involved in something. Sp. explicar resumidamente. E.g. We outlined our proposals to the committee.
P. 185
  • Was not to: must changes to had to and mustn't becomes was not to for obligation in reported speech. E.g. you mustn't tell my mother: she said I was not to tell her mother.
  • Rubbish tip: a place where you can take rubbish/garbage and leave it. Sp. Vertedero.
Ex 4 
  • Scum: /skʌm/ an insulting word for people that you strongly disapprove of. Sp. escoria. E.g. Don't waste your sympathy on scum like that. Drug dealers are the scum of the earth (= the worst people there are).
  • Abuse: rude and offensive remarks, usually made when somebody is very angry. E.g. to scream/hurl/shout abuse. She screamed abuse at Tom. A stream/torrent of abuse. The man burst into a torrent of foul-mouthed racist abuse.
  • Hurl: 1. to throw something/somebody violently in a particular direction. E.g. He hurled a brick through the window. 2. hurl abuse, accusations, insults, etc. (at somebody) to shout insults, etc. at somebody. E.g. Rival fans hurled abuse at each other.
  • Foul-mouthed: using rude, offensive language. E.g. a foul-mouthed racist.
  • Scold: /skəʊld/ to speak angrily to somebody, especially a child, because they have done something wrong. E.g. He scolded them for arriving late.
  • Stern: serious and often disapproving; expecting somebody to obey you. E.g. a stern face/expression/look. Sternly (adv) /stɜːnli/ E.g. The librarian sternly told us off for talking. 

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