Thursday, 19 January 2012

Objective Proficiency p 111. Vocabulary

Ex 6
  • Persons: people is neutral; persons is used in notices and government handouts. E.g. This vehicle is licensed to carry 4 persons (= in a notice). (Law) The verdict was murder by a person or persons unknown. Each of the persons using unlawful violence is guilty of riot.
  • Amelioration: /əˌmiːliəˈreɪʃn/ (formal) [uncountable] the act of making something better. Improvement. E.g. progress brings with it the amelioration of the human condition.
  • Bloke: (British English, informal) a man. E.g. He seemed like a nice bloke.
  • Frequent something: /friˈkwent/ (formal) to visit a particular place often. E.g. We met in a local bar much frequented by students. Less frequented roads. Bears which persisted in frequenting developed areas.
  • Reckon (that): /ˈrekən/ (informal, especially British English) to think something or have an opinion about something. E.g. I reckon (that) I'm going to get that job. He'll be famous one day. What do you reckon (= do you agree)? It's worth a lot of money, I reckon. ‘They'll never find out.’ ‘You reckon?(= I think you may be wrong about that).
  • Booze: /buːz/ (informal) (usually used in the progressive tenses) to drink alcohol, especially in large quantities. E.g. He's out boozing with his mates.  
  • Mate: (informal) a friend. E.g. They've been best mates since school. I was with a mate. 
  • Fellow: (informal, becoming old-fashioned) a way of referring to a man or boy. E.g. He's a nice old fellow. 
  • Guy: (informal) a man. E.g. a big/nice/tough guy. A Dutch guy. At the end of the film the bad guy gets shot.
  • Snap: (also snapshot) (informal) a photograph, especially one taken quickly. E.g. holiday snaps.
  • Plus: (informal) an advantage; a good thing. E.g. Knowledge of French is a plus in her job. There were a lot of pluses in the performance. 
  • Lousy: /ˈlaʊzi / (informal) very bad. Terrible. E.g. What lousy weather! I've had a lousy day. She felt lousy (= ill). 
  • Prudent: /ˈpruːdnt/ (formal) sensible and careful when you make judgements and decisions; avoiding unnecessary risks. E.g. a prudent businessman. A prudent decision/investment. It might be more prudent to get a second opinion before going ahead.
  • Guts: [plural] (informal) the courage and determination that it takes to do something difficult or unpleasant. E.g. He doesn't have the guts to walk away from a well-paid job.
  • Becoming: /bɪˈkʌmɪŋ/ (formal) 1. looking good on someone. Attractive. E.g.  what a becoming dress! Her new hairstyle was very becoming. 2. suitable or appropriate: do not talk too much to your cousins, it’s not becoming. 
  • Interchangeable: /ˌɪntəˈtʃeɪndʒəbl/ (adj) that can be exchanged. Interchangeably: (Adv) E.g. These terms are used interchangeably.
  • Rife:/ raɪf /if something bad or unpleasant is rife in a place, it is very common there. Widespread. It is a country where corruption is rife. Rumours are rife that he is going to resign.
  • Broke: having no money. E.g. I'm always broke by the end of the month. 
  • Destitute: /ˈdestɪtjuːt/ without money, food and the other things necessary for life. E.g. When he died, his family was left completely destitute (Sp. quedó en la indigencia).
  • Slender: thin in an attractive or elegant way. E.g. her slender figure. Long, slender fingers. A slender young woman.
  • Opponent: /əˈpəʊnənt/ a person that you are playing or fighting against in a game, competition, argument, etc.E.g. a political opponent. A dangerous/worthy/formidable opponent. The team's opponents are unbeaten so far this season.
  • Tiptoe: /ˈtɪptəʊ/(+ adverb/preposition)to walk using the front parts of your feet only, so that other people cannot hear you. E.g. I tiptoed over to the window.
  • Sneak: + adverb/preposition to go somewhere secretly, trying to avoid being seen. Do something underhand (adj. secret and dishonest). E.g. Did you sneak into my room while I was asleep?
  • Shout: to say something in a loud voice; to speak loudly and often angrily to somebody. Stop shouting and listen!  ‘Run!’ he shouted. Babies yell, they can't really shout.
  • Woodland: an area of land that is covered with trees. Sp. bosque. E.g. ancient woodland. The house is fringed by fields and woodlands. Woodland walks.
  • Ravage: / ˈrævɪdʒ/ to damage something badly. Sp. arrasado, asolado. E.g. a country ravaged by civil war. A recession that has ravaged the textile industry.
  • Strike somebody/something: (formal) to hit somebody/something hard or with force. E.g. The ship struck a rock. The child ran into the road and was struck by a car. The tree was struck by lightning. He fell, striking his head on the edge of the table. The stone struck her on the forehead.
  • Trickle: to flow, or to make something flow, slowly in a thin stream. E.g. Tears were trickling down her cheeks.
  • Leak: to allow liquid or gas to get in or out through a small hole or crack. E.g. a leaking pipe. The roof was leaking.
Ex 8
  • Outline: a description of the main facts or points involved in something. Sp. resumen. E.g. This is a brief outline of the events. You should draw up a plan or outline for the essay. The book describes in outline the main findings of the research. An outline agreement/proposal. 
  • At/from the outset (of something): at/from the beginning of something. E.g. I made it clear right from the outset that I disapproved.
  • Outcome: the result or effect of an action or event. E.g. We are waiting to hear the final outcome of the negotiations. These costs are payable whatever the outcome of the case. We are confident of a successful outcome. Four possible outcomes have been identified.
  • Outlook (for something): the probable future for somebody/something; what is likely to happen. Prospect. Sp. perspectiva. E.g. The outlook for jobs is bleak. The country's economic outlook. The outlook (= the probable weather) for the weekend is dry and sunny.
  • Concern about: E.g. There is growing concern about violence on television.
  • Attention to: E.g. Please pay attention (= listen carefully) to what I am saying.
  • Responsibility for: E.g. We are recruiting a sales manager with responsibility for the European market.
  • Consideration of: E.g. a consideration of the legal issues involved.
  • Deposition: /ˌdepəˈzɪʃn/ the natural process of leaving a layer of a substance on rocks or soil; a substance left in this way. E.g. marine/river deposition. 
  • Chlorofluorocarbon: /ˌklɔːrəʊˈflʊərəʊkɑːbən/ CFC. A type of gas used especially in aerosols (=/ˈeərəsɒl/ types of container that release liquid in the form of a spray). E.g. CFCs are harmful to the earth's ozone layer.
  • Depletion: /dɪˈpliːʃn/ reduction in the number or quantity of something. E.g. the depletion of the ozone layer.
  • Concerted: /kənˈsɜːtɪd/ done in a planned and determined way, especially by more than one person, government, country, etc. Sp. coordinado, conjunto, decidido.  E.g. a concerted approach/attack/campaign. She has begun to make a concerted effort to find a job.
  • Wane: /weɪn/ 1. to become gradually weaker or less important. Sp. decaer, disminuir. E.g. Her enthusiasm for the whole idea was waning rapidly. Their popularity waned during that period. 2. (of the moon) have a progressively smaller part of its visible surface illuminated, so that it appears to decrease in size.
  • Diminish: to become or to make something become smaller, weaker, etc. Sp. disminuir, reducirse. E.g. The world's resources are rapidly diminishing. His influence has diminished with time.
  • Depreciate: /dɪˈpriːʃieɪt/  to become less valuable over a period of time. E.g. New cars start to depreciate as soon as they are on the road. Shares continued to depreciate on the stock markets today. 
  • Curtail: / kɜːˈteɪl/ to limit something or make it last for a shorter time. Sp. acortar, restringir. Spending on books has been severely curtailed. The lecture was curtailed by the fire alarm going off. The government will curtail public spending next year.Civil liberties were further curtailed.
  • Limited: not very great in amount or extent. Sp. limitado, restringido. E.g. We are doing our best with the limited resources available. This animal's intelligence is very limited.
  • Restricted: limited or small in size or amount. Sp. Limitado, reducido. E.g. A restricted space. A restricted range of foods.
  • Confined: /kənˈfaɪnd/ small and surrounded by walls or sides. Sp. Limitado, reducido. E.g. It is cruel to keep animals in confined spaces.    
  • Bound something (formal): to form the edge or limit of an area. If an area is bounded by a fence, trees, a river etc, this is what is around its edge. E.g. The property is bounded on the north and east by a large residential neighbourhood. The field was bounded on the left by a wood.   
  • Give way to something: to be replaced by something. E.g. The storm gave way to bright sunshine. As he drew nearer, his anxiety gave way to relief.
  • Bring about: to make something happen. Cause. E.g. What brought about the change in his attitude?
Ex 8 
  • Pedestrianisation: /pəˈdestriənaɪˈzeɪʃn/ the act of making a street or part of a town into an area that is only for people who are walking, not for vehicles.
  • Instigate: /ˈɪnstɪɡeɪt/ to make something start or happen, usually something official. Sp. promover. E.g. The government has instigated a programme of economic reform.
  • Unsightly: /ʌnˈsaɪtli/ not pleasant to look at. Ugly. E.g. an unsightly scar. Unsightly factories.
  • Pedestrianise: / pəˈdestriənaɪz/ to make a street or part of a town into an area that is only for people who are walking, not for vehicles. E.g. Most of the city streets have been pedestrianized. Pedestrianized areas.
  • Tub: a large round container without a lid, used for washing clothes in, growing plants in, etc. E.g. There were tubs of flowers on the balcony.
  • Admittedly: / ədˈmɪtɪdliused, especially at the beginning of a sentence, when you are accepting that something is true. E.g. Admittedly, it is rather expensive but you don't need to use much. Admittedly, Venice wasn't a very big place, but there was little chance of meeting her again accidentally.

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