Friday, 20 January 2012

Objective Proficiency p 112. The Subjunctive. Extra Grammar


Related story:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv201.shtml

We use the present subjunctive, which has the same form as the base form of the verb, in that-clauses. We put not before the verb in the negative subjunctive. We can use should instead of the subjunctive. It can be used to refer to events in the past, present or future
With verbs: ask, demand, insist, propose, recommend, suggest, require, advise, request, beg, command, direct, instruct, intend, order, prefer, stipulate, urge, warn (that).
Examples:

Her parents suggested that she wake early tomorrow.
They suggested that Mrs Giddy be appointed as deputy head on a temporary basis.
They ask that she send copies of her identity documents
The airline representative recommended that he check in at least three hours before departure.
We asked that he not smoke inside.
The organisation's director proposed that cash donations not be accepted.
The receptionist suggested that guests not bring sleeping bags.


With adjectives: recommended, (un)necessary, essential, better/best, important, advisable, desirable, preferable, vital, crucial, imperative, obligatory, urgent, appalling, (in)appropriate, (in)conceivable.
Examples:
It is best that our son spend time outdoors.
It is recommended that you not drink coffee late at night.
It is essential that no one (should) feel excluded.
It is vital that every voice (should) be heard.

With nouns expressing orders, rules or suggestions:
It is our recommendation that he (should) not say anything until the investigation is over.
Isn't there a rule that safety equipment (should) be worn whenever machinery is running?
They gave instructions that all passengers (should) have passport ready for inspection.
The school had a requirement that uniforms (should) be worn at all times.


Alternatives to the subjunctive

With verbs insist and demand there is no alternative
Example:
The electric company is demanding that the customer pay immediately.

With verbs ask and require we can use the infinitive
Example:
The shop requires customers to exchange unwanted items within 30 days.

With verbs require, recommend, suggest and propose we can use the gerund.
Example:
What do you recommend doing in Paris?

With adjectives important, essential, vital, necessary, better/best.
It (+would) + be + adj. (+ for + object) + inf.
Examples:
It's important for you to listen carefully.
It would be better to rest before your exam tomorrow.
It's important to discuss any problems you may be having with your supervisor.

There are some fixed expressions which use the subjunctive forms:
If he doesn't want to see us, then so be it (= then let it happen).
Bless you!
Long live the republic/ king!
'There is very little chance of winning this case'. 'Be that as it may (=whether that is true or not), I'm not going to give up fighting.'
I'll take it all the way to the Supreme Court if need be (=if this is necessary)
Suffice (it) to say (=it is enough to say), Mike won't be going to Tina's ​birthday ​party after what he said about her to her ​boss.

Exercise
Complete with an affirmative or negative verb form
1. Experts say it's important that a child ________ inside all day.
2. They recommend that everyone ________ at least 30 minutes of fresh air a day.
3. It's essential that a child _____________ too much time in front of the TV.
4. Parents should insist that their child's school __________ children outside at break time.
5. It's recommended that a child _________ touch with nature.
6. Experts suggest that a parent __________ their child too much and _______ them take some risks.
7. Doctors ask that a child ___________ fit through outside play.
8. It is of vital importance that the head teacher _________ present at the interviews when other teachers are selected.
9. He insisted that he ________ playing football in the office.
10. She asked that she _______ kept informed of developments.



KEY
1. not stay


2. have


3. not spend


4. allow



5. not lose



6. not protect



let



7. keep



8. be



9. stop



10. be



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