Thursday, 26 January 2012

Objective Proficiency p 118. Vocabulary

Paper 1 Part 4 Text
  • Leach (from something) (into something)/ leach out/away (of chemicals, minerals, etc.): to be removed from soil, etc. by water passing through it. E.g. Nitrates (/ˈnaɪtreɪts/) leach from the soil into rivers.
  • Obsolescence: /ˌɒbsəˈlesns/ the state of becoming old-fashioned and no longer useful. E.g. products with built-in/planned obsolescence (= designed not to last long so that people will have to buy new ones).
  • Refurbish something: /ˌriːˈfɜːbɪʃ/ to clean and decorate a room, building, etc. in order to make it more attractive, more useful, etc. E.g. The theatre has been extensively refurbished.
  • Cadmium: / ˈkædmiəm/ (symb. Cd) a chemical element. Cadmium is a soft poisonous bluish-white metal that is used in batteries and nuclear reactors. Sp. cadmio.
  • Mercury: /ˈmɜːkjəri / (symb. Hg) a chemical element. Mercury is a poisonous silver liquid metal, used in thermometers.
  • Dioxin: /daɪˈɒksɪn/ a chemical used in industry and farming. Most dioxins are poisonous.
  • Topsoil: the layer of soil nearest the surface of the ground.
  • Granulated: /ˌɡrænjuleɪtɪd/ in the form of small grains.
  • Mulch: /mʌltʃ/ material, for example, decaying leaves, that you put around a plant to protect its base and its roots, to improve the quality of the soil or to stop weeds growing. Sp. mantillo.
     

  • Mutton: / ˈmʌtn/ meat from a fully grown sheep.   
  • Supersede something/somebody: [often passive] to take the place of something/somebody that is considered to be old-fashioned or no longer the best available. Sp. Reemplazar. E.g. The theory has been superseded by more recent research. 
  • Hangar: /ˈhæŋɡə(r)/ a large building with an extensive floor area, typically for housing, building or repairing aircraft.
  • Outfit: an organization, especially a small firm. E.g. Is this a nationwide company, or a local outfit? 
  • Turnover (of something): the total amount of goods or services sold by a company during a particular period of time. Sp. facturación. E.g. an annual turnover of $75 million. A fall in turnover.
  • Disposal: /dɪˈspəʊzl/ the act of getting rid of something. E.g. the disposal of nuclear waste.
  • Lurk: /lɜːk/ to wait somewhere secretly, especially because you are going to do something bad or illegal. Sp. merodear. E.g.  Why are you lurking around outside my house? A crocodile was lurking just below the surface.  
  • Decommission sth: /ˌdiːkəˈmɪʃn/ to officially stop using weapons, a nuclear power station, etc. Sp. Retirar, desmantelar. E.g. we need to decommission old nuclear power stations.  
  • Warehouse: a building where large quantities of goods are stored, especially before they are sent to shops/stores to be sold.
  • Surreal: /səˈriːəl/ very strange; more like a dream than reality, with ideas and images mixed together in a strange way. Sp. Surrealista. E.g. surreal images. The play was a surreal mix of fact and fantasy.
  • Paddle: to move a small boat through water using a paddle (a short pole with a flat wide part at one or both ends). Sp. Remar. E.g. We paddled downstream for about a mile. We paddled the canoe along the coast.
  • Sargasso Sea: /sɑːˈɡæsəʊ/   it is in the middle of the North Atlantic. All the currents deposit the marine plants and refuse they carry into this sea.



  • Shoal: /ʃəʊl/ 1. a large number of fish swimming together as a group. Sp. banco. E.g. shoals of herring. Squid travel in shoals. 2. a large number of people or things. Sp. montón. E.g.  shoals of people were coming up the drive.
  • Beach (something): to come or bring something out of the water and onto the beach. E.g. He beached the boat and lifted the boy onto the shore.
  • Adhesive: / ədˈhiːsɪv/ that can stick to something. Sticky. E.g adhesive tape.
  • Pallet: /ˈpælət/ a heavy wooden or metal base that can be used for moving or storing goods.
  • Grimy: /ˈɡraɪmi/ covered with dirt. E.g. grimy hands/windows. His clothes were grimy and bloodstained. 
  • Crate: /kreɪt/ a large wooden container for transporting goods. Sp. Cajón. E.g. a crate of bananas.
  • Stacked: /stækt/ if a surface is stacked with objects, there are large numbers or piles of them on it. E.g. a table stacked with glasses. Shelves stacked with files.
  • Acid-green: /ˈæsɪd/

 
  • Circuitry: /ˈsɜːkɪtri / a system of electrical circuits or the equipment that forms this. Sp. Sistema de circuitos.
  • Fillet sth: / ˈfɪlɪt/ to remove the bones from a piece of fish or meat; to cut fish or meat into fillets.
  • Flimsy: /ˈflɪmzi/ 1. badly made and not strong enough for the purpose for which it is used. Sp. frágil. E.g. a flimsy table. 2. thin and easily torn. Sp. endeble. E.g. a flimsy piece of paper/fabric/plastic.
  • Forlorn: /fəˈlɔːn/ (of a person) appearing lonely and unhappy. E.g. She looked so forlorn, standing there in the rain. 
  • Heap (of something): an untidy pile of something. The building was reduced to a heap of rubble. A compost heap. His clothes lay in a heap on the floor. Worn-out car tyres were stacked in heaps.  
  • Disembowel somebody/something: /ˌdɪsɪmˈbaʊəl/ to take the stomach, bowels and other organs out of a person or animal.
  • Featureless: /ˈfiːtʃələs/ without any qualities or noticeable characteristics. E.g. The countryside is flat and featureless.
  • Scrub: to clean something by rubbing it hard, perhaps with a brush and usually with soap and water. E.g. I found him in the kitchen, scrubbing the floor. He stepped into the shower and scrubbed himself all over.
  • Cannibalise something: to take the parts of a machine, vehicle, etc. and use them to repair or build another. 
  • Crunch something up: to crush something completely. Sp. triturar. E.g. He crunched up the empty pack and threw it out of the window.
  • Landfill: an area of land where large amounts of waste material are buried under the earth. Sp. vertedero. E.g. The map shows the position of the new landfills. A landfill site.
  • Scrap: things that are not wanted or cannot be used for their original purpose, but which have some value for the material they are made of. Sp. chatarra. E.g. We sold the car for scrap (= so that any good parts can be used again). Scrap metal. A scrap dealer (= a person who buys and sells scrap).
  • Strip mining: a type of mining in which coal is taken out of the ground near the surface. 
  • Set: likely to do something; ready for something or to do something. E.g. set for something The team looks set for victory. Set to do something Interest rates look set to rise again. Be set to leave by 10 o'clock.
  • Retailer: a person or business that sells goods to the public. Sp. minorista. E.g. one of the country's largest food retailers.
  • Polystyrene: /ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn/ a very light soft plastic that is usually white, used especially for making containers that prevent heat loss. Sp. poliestireno. E.g. polystyrene cups.


  • Stuff: to fill a space or container tightly with something. E.g. The fridge is stuffed to bursting. All the drawers were stuffed full of letters and papers. 
  • On your/the/its way: going or coming.  E.g. I'd better be on my way (= I must leave) soon. The letter should be on its way to you. 
  • Mournful: /ˈmɔːnfl/ very sad. E.g. mournful eyes. Mournful music. I couldn't bear the mournful look on her face. 
  • Lap: (of water) to touch something gently and regularly, often making a soft sound. E.g. The waves lapped around our feet. The sound of water lapping against the boat. 
  • Haunt: /hɔːnt/ 1. Haunt something/somebody if the ghost of a dead person haunts a place, people say that they have seen it there. E.g. A headless rider haunts the country lanes. I'll come back to haunt you!  2. Haunt somebody to continue to cause problems for somebody for a long time. E.g. That decision came back to haunt him. She has been haunted by her past during her career.




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