Thursday, 5 January 2012

Objective Proficiency p 97. Vocabulary

Ex 2
Text B
  • Bias: /ˈbaɪəs/ 1. a strong feeling in favour of or against one group of people, or one side in an argument, often not based on fair judgement. Sp. Prejuicio. E.g. accusations of political bias in news programmes (= that reports are unfair and show favour to one political party). 2. an interest in one thing more than others; a special ability. Sp. inclinación, enfoque. E.g. The course has a strong practical bias. Leila had a marked scientific bias.
  • Shortcoming: / ˈʃɔːtkʌmɪŋ/ (usually plural) a fault in somebody's character, a plan, a system, etc. Defect. E.g. She made me aware of my own shortcomings. Despite a number of shortcomings, the project will still go ahead.
  • Bullishly: feeling confident, optimistic and positive about the future. E.g. groups often behave bullishly. Stocks on Monday reacted bullishly to positive developments at the summit.
  • Inherent: /ɪnˈhɪərənt/ that is a basic or permanent part of somebody/something and that cannot be removed. Intrinsic. E.g. Violence is inherent in our society.
  • Dissenter: /dɪˈsentə(r)/ a person who does not agree with opinions that are officially or generally accepted.
  • Drive: an organized effort by a group of people to achieve something. E.g. a recruitment/export/economy drive. A drive for greater efficiency. The government's drive to reduce energy consumption.
  • Unanimity: /ˌjuːnəˈnɪməti/  complete agreement about something among a group of people. E.g. There is no unanimity of opinion among the medical profession on this subject. We won't all agree, but we need to achieve a degree of unanimity.
  • Antecedent: a thing or an event that exists or comes before another, and may have influenced it. 
  • Foster something: to encourage something to develop. Encourage, promote. Sp. fomentar. E.g. The club's aim is to foster better relations within the community.
  • Cohesiveness: /kəʊˈhiːsɪvnəs/ forming a united whole. E.g. a strong sense of cohesiveness within the family.
  • Fault: /fɔːlt /something that is wrong or not perfect; something that is wrong with a machine or system that stops it from working correctly. Defect. E.g. a major fault in the design. A structural fault. An electrical fault.
  • Fiasco: /fiˈæskəʊ/ something that does not succeed, often in a way that causes embarrassment. Disaster. E.g. The party was a complete fiasco.What a fiasco!
Ex 4
  • (Do somebody) a good turn: (to do) something that helps somebody. E.g. Well, that's my good turn for the day.
Ex 5 
  • Blinkered: not aware of every aspect of a situation; not willing to accept different ideas about something. Narrow-minded. Sp. de miras estrechas. E.g. a blinkered policy/attitude/approach.
  • Catalyst (for something): a person or thing that causes a change. E.g. I see my role as being a catalyst for change. The riots were later seen as the catalyst for the new political developments.
Ex 6
  • Boldness: confidence. Not afraid to say what you feel or to take risks. Sp. Osadía. E.g. Excessive boldness.
  • Undue: /ˌʌnˈdjuː/ more than you think is reasonable or necessary. Excessive. Sp. excesivo, demasiado. E.g. They are taking undue advantage of the situation. The work should be carried out without undue delay. We did not want to put any undue pressure on them. Repayments can be made over a long period, without putting undue strain on your finances.
  • Self-belief: Trust in one's positive characteristics; self-confidence; self-worth. Sp. creencia en uno mismo. E.g. self-belief is ingrained in the group.

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