Wednesday, 16 November 2011

Objective Proficiency p 47. Advertising and Shopping. Extra Speaking

1. MONOLOGUE. Prepare a talk of AT LEAST 5 minutes on the subject. You may use the pictures above and the contents below if you wish:

“One word: freedom! The more I own, the more I'm responsible for. Having less things and living a simple life is so freeing. I'm so tired of being weighed down by my stuff!”

1.  Do you know anybody who moonlights? Why do you think there are people who try to make a bit on the side? Is it because they struggle to eke out a living, or might there be other reasons?

2. With the recession in full swing many people are in arrears with their rent or mortgage. What could be the possible consequences? Can you think of any solutions?

3. What would you do if you found that something you had bought was faulty?

4. What is necessary for a successful advertising campaign?

5. What are the advantages and disadvantages  of shopping in a shopping precinct? and in a shopping mall?  

6. What kind of things would you buy at an auction? Have you ever been to one?

7. Would you like to work as a mystery shopper? Why?

8. What kind of things do people in your country pay for on expenses?


Picture 1





the lowest level of income on which it is possible to live. E.g. Many people without jobs are living on the breadline (= are very poor).







causing or showing sadness. Miserable. Sp. Deprimente. E.g. dismal conditions/surroundings/weather. Christmas will be dismal without presents. Low-income families whose economic stability continues to be threatened by a dismal economic climate.





Cut back (on)



 to reduce something. E.g. If we don't sell more, we'll have to cut back production. To cut back on spending.


Carve out a living. 

to work hard and manage to live with very little money. E.g. they struggled to carve out a living for themselves and their families.






/ˈdestɪtjuːt/ without money, food and the other things necessary for life. E.g.  When he died, his family was left completely destitute.



Make (both) ends meet



to earn just enough money to be able to buy the things you need. Sp. sobrevivir. E.g. Many families struggle to make ends meet.



on a shoestring 




(informal) using very little money. E.g. In the early years, the business was run on a shoestring. Some people get by on a shoestring budget.

live (from) hand to mouth 

to spend all the money you earn on basic needs such as food without being able to save any money.


 a way of living especially when this is difficult or boring. E.g.  E.g. The farmer worked in poor soil and lived a poor existence. The family endured a miserable existence in a cramped apartment. We led a poor but happy enough existence as children. They eke out a precarious existence (= they have hardly enough money to live on). The peasants depend on a good harvest for their very existence (= in order to continue to live).

to make a good/decent/meagre living

/ˈmiːɡə(r)/  small in quantity and poor in quality. Sp. escaso. E.g. She supplements her meagre income by cleaning at night.  Families eke out a meagre living. Gradually I was able to make a meagre living.







 a situation that is difficult and unpleasant because you do not have enough money, food, clothes, etc. E.g. suffer economic/ financial hardship. People suffered many hardships during that long winter. The two men endured great hardship during their trek across Antarctica. It was no hardship to walk home on such a lovely evening.








/dɪˈstres/  suffering and problems caused by not having enough money, food, etc.
Synonym:  hardship. E.g. economic/ financial distress. The charity aims to relieve poverty and distress caused by natural disasters.




Fall back on  




something: have something to use when in difficulty. E.g. I don't think he's got much to fall back on. Have a little money in the bank to fall back on. She fell back on her usual excuse of having no time.




Ride something out: 



to manage to survive a difficult situation or time without having to make great changes. Sp. Aguantar.  E.g. Do you think we can ride out the recession? To ride out the storm (capear el temporal).




Weather: weather something 




 to come safely through a difficult period or experience. E.g. The company just managed to weather the recession. She refuses to resign, intending to weather the storm (= wait until the situation improves again). We managed to weather the last economic depression by cutting down our workforce.




Buck something 




(informal) to resist or oppose something. E.g. One or two companies have managed to buck the trend of the recession. 




Cut corners




(disapproving) to do something in the easiest, cheapest or quickest way, often by ignoring rules or leaving something out. E.g. To be competitive, they paid low wages and cut corners on health and safety. When things got difficult we tried cutting corners; it proved a false economy.




False economy




An ​action that ​saves ​money at the ​beginning but, over a ​longer ​period of ​time, ​results in more ​money being ​wasted than being ​saved. E.g. Buying ​cheap ​household ​appliances is a ​false ​economy - they're ​twice as ​likely to ​break down








/ɒˈsterəti/ a situation when people do not have much money to spend because there are bad economic conditions. E.g. War was followed by many years of austerity. Austerity measures and economic reforms.








/ˈspaɪrəl/ a continuous harmful increase or decrease in something, that gradually gets faster and faster. E.g. the vicious spiral of rising taxes and prices.








/slʌmp/ slump (in something) a sudden fall in sales, prices, the value of something, etc. Decline. E.g. a slump in profits. This is the worst slump in property prices since the 1990s. There has been a slump in the sales of new houses since mortgages became more difficult to obtain.








 a lack of activity or improvement. Not growing or doing well. E.g. The bond market normally revives after the summer doldrums. Despite these measures, the economy remains in the doldrums. Etymology: from the place in the ocean near the equator where there are sudden periods of calm. A sailing ship caught in this area can be stuck there because of a lack of wind.  








a situation in which there is no progress or development. A situation in which a country's economy is not growing or succeeding. E.g. a period of economic stagnation. Prices have risen after almost a year of stagnation.








 /stæɡˈneɪt/ to stop developing or making progress. E.g. Profits have stagnated. I feel I'm stagnating in this job. Businesses must adapt to change or stagnate.







 /ˈtɔːpə(r)/ the state of not being active and having no energy or enthusiasm. E.g. In the heat they sank into a state of torpor. Bring the economy out of torpor.



Miss the boat




 miss an opportunity to do something. E.g. If you don't buy now, you may find that you've missed the boat. We had the opportunity to expand, but we were complacent and missed the boat.




Rest/ sit on your laurels 




/ˈlɒrəlz/ (usually disapproving) to feel so satisfied with what you have already achieved that you do not try to do any more. E.g. I made sure I didn't rest on my laurels.








/ˌɪnɪˈfɪʃntənsi/ E.g. The manager's inefficiency contributed to the failure of the enterprise.








 the crime of stealing goods from a shop/ store by deliberately leaving without paying for them. E.g. be/ get caught shoplifting.


Picture 2


in the lap of luxury 



in easy, comfortable conditions, and enjoying the advantages of being rich. E.g. We spent two weeks in the hotel living in the lap of luxury.




live/sleep rough




 (British English) to live or sleep outdoors, usually because you have no home and no money. E.g. young people sleeping rough on the streets.

economic migrant:

 someone who goes to a new country because living conditions or opportunities for jobs are not good in their own country. This word is used by governments to show that a person is not considered a refugee (=someone who has been forced to leave their country for political reasons)

asylum seeker  

a person who has been forced to leave their own country because they are in danger and who arrives in another country asking to be allowed to stay there

ostracize somebody 

(formal) /ˈɒstrəsaɪz/ to refuse to let somebody be a member of a social group; to refuse to meet or talk to somebody. E.g. He was ostracized by his colleagues for refusing to support the strike. She was declared a witch and ostracized by the villagers.


/əbˈsiːn/ Offending against moral principles; repugnant. So unfair or immoral that you feel angry. E.g. using animals' skins for fur coats is obscene.  The amount of money that top-class footballers earn is positively obscene.     







causing or showing sadness. Miserable. Sp. Deprimente. E.g. dismal conditions/surroundings/weather. Christmas will be dismal without presents. Low-income families whose economic stability continues to be threatened by a dismal economic climate.



/ˈwɪəri/ very tired, especially after you have been working hard or doing something for a long time. E.g. a weary traveller. She suddenly felt old and weary. A weary sigh. This airport is facilitated with good runways, waiting rooms, refreshment and cargo handling so that a weary traveller is never disappointed. 


/dɪsˈkɒnsələt/ very unhappy and disappointed. Dejected. E.g. The disconsolate players left for home without a trophy.




Set your heart on something/ have your heart set on something: 




to want something very much. E.g. They've set their heart on a house in the country. I have set my heart on an exotic foreign holiday. 

set your sights on something/on doing something

to decide that you want something and to try very hard to get it. E.g. She's set her sights on getting into Harvard. I had set my sights on a career in journalism.

put/set/turn your mind to something, set your mind on something 

 to decide you want to achieve something and give this all your attention. E.g. Once Anna’s set her mind on getting something, there’s no stopping her. I’ve set my mind on getting a university degree.

white-clad golfers


dressed. E.g. leather-clad motorcyclists. African migrants look down on white-clad golfers in viral photo.



Splash out (on something) / splash something out (on/ for something) 




(British English, informal) to spend a lot of money on something. E.g. We're going to splash out and buy a new car. He splashed out hundreds of pounds on designer clothes.




Fork out (for something)/ fork out something (for/on something) 




(informal) to spend a lot of money on something, especially unwillingly. Why fork out for a taxi when there's a perfectly good bus service? We've forked out a small fortune on their education.




spendthrift: (N) 




 a person who spends too much money or who wastes money. E.g. Putt was a spendthrift and a heavy gambler.  






A spendthrift uncle. Spendthrift governments.








 careful about spending money and not wasting things. Frugal. E.g. He was brought up to be thrifty and never to get into debt.

razor wire fence 
razor wire:  

strong wire with sharp blades sticking out, placed on top of walls and around areas of land to keep people out.








to sit or to make somebody sit on something, especially on the edge of it. E.g. many migrants remained perched on top of the fence for several hours.




overlook the golf course




The photo reflects the situation really well 




Each year thousands of Africans try to reach Europe by making it past the fortified fence that separates Morocco from the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta.




make it past:  




 If we say "make it past" something, it usually means something difficult. It can be used in many situations. For example, if you make it past the guards before the main gate you will be able to sneak inside ( if you are able to pass the guards without them seeing you). If someone has a busy week ahead of them at work with much work, many meetings, etc., they may say, "if I can make it past this week (and get all my work done), I'll be okay". If you had to do something that would make you nervous or scared, you'd say, "if I can make it past this.....(then I'll feel better) 








an area of a country or city where the people have a different religion, culture or nationality from those who live in the country or city that surrounds it.




Many of them spend months living in makeshift camps on the Moroccan side, waiting for the opportunity to rush the fence








 used temporarily for a particular purpose because the real thing is not available. Provisional. Improvised. E.g. The hall had been turned into a makeshift hospital. 




rush somebody/something  



to try to attack or capture somebody/something suddenly. E.g. A group of prisoners rushed an officer and managed to break out. Fans rushed the stage after the concert. 




This image is a metaphor for



Picture 3



Recovery (in something): 



 the process of improving or becoming stronger again. E.g. The government is forecasting an economic recovery. A recovery in consumer spending. The economy is showing signs of recovery. 








upturn (in something) a situation in which something improves or increases over a period of time. E.g. an upturn in the economy. A sharp upturn in the number of tourists visiting the capital








(in something) a fall in the amount of business that is done; a time when the economy becomes weaker. E.g. the recent economic downturns. A downturn in sales/trade/business.







a sudden increase in trade and economic activity; a period of wealth and success. E.g. Living standards improved rapidly during the post-war boom. Boom in something a boom in car sales. A boom year (for trade, exports, etc.) A property/housing boom. A chaotic period of boom and bust (a situation in which a country’s economy regularly goes through periods of success followed by periods of failure







 a period when a country’s economy or a business is doing very badly. E.g.  the slump of the 1930s. Housing sales are finally coming out of a three-month slump. The toy industry is in a slump.




upswing (in something) 




a situation in which something improves or increases over a period of time. E.g. an upswing in economic activity




look up 




(informal) (of business, somebody's situation, etc.) to become better. Synonym: improve. E.g. At last things were beginning to look up.

Be going strong

be doing well and being successful. E.g. The company is still going strong. My grandmother is 90 and still going strong.








/ˈbɔɪənt/ tending to increase or stay at a high level, usually showing financial success. E.g. a buoyant economy/ market. Buoyant sales/ prices. A buoyant demand for homes. 




make or break somebody/something: 




to be the thing that makes somebody/something either a success or a failure. E.g. This movie will make or break him as a director. It's make-or-break time for the company. Department stores are gearing up for the make-or break Christmas shopping season. 




gear up (for/to something) / gear somebody/something up (for/to something) 




 to prepare yourself/somebody/something to do something. E.g. Cycle organizations are gearing up for National Bike Week. The region geared up for the tourist season. The town is gearing up for the carnival this weekend. Most banks have geared themselves up for an electronic future. 




brace somebody/yourself (for something) | brace somebody/yourself (to do something) be braced for something 




 to prepare somebody/yourself for something difficult or unpleasant that is going to happen. E.g. Financial markets are braced for another turbulent week. The city is bracing itself for the hurricane.




no holds barred: 




with no rules or limits on what somebody is allowed to do. E.g. Competition is extremely intense in the no-holds-barred world of supermarket retail. There will be no holds barred in his interview with the president this evening. No-holds-barred military action. They can say anything they like, no holds barred.  the demand for a no-holds-barred investigation.


Usher something in




 to be the beginning of something new or to make something new begin. Sp. Abrir paso, marcar el inicio. E.g. The change of management ushered in fresh ideas and policies. Let's hope that the new year will usher in a period of prosperity for everyone.  




go to the dogs 




(North American English also go to hell in a handbasket) (informal) to get into a very bad state. E.g. This firm's gone to the dogs since the new management took over.


 /niːʃ/ or /nɪtʃ/  
1. a comfortable or suitable role, job, way of life, etc. Sp. Hueco. E.g. He eventually found his niche in sports journalism.
2. an opportunity to sell a particular product to a particular group of people. Sp. Nicho. E.g. They spotted a niche in the market, with no serious competition. A niche market. The development of niche marketing (= aiming products at particular groups).







something: to make something increase, or become better or more successful. E.g. to boost exports/ profits. The movie helped boost her screen career. To boost somebody's confidence/ morale. Getting that job did a lot to boost his ego (= make him feel more confident). Big fashion stores are employing psychologists to help them boost their profits.








 1 turnover (of something) the total amount of goods or services sold by a company during a particular period of time. E.g. an annual turnover of $75 million. A fall in turnover.  

2  turnover (of somebody) the rate at which employees leave a company and are replaced by other people. E.g. a high turnover of staff

3 turnover (of something) the rate at which goods are sold in a shop/ store and replaced by others. E.g. a fast turnover of stock. Over the past ten years this shop has doubled its turnover.




Branch out (into something) 




to start to do an activity that you have not done before, especially in your work or business. Diversify. E.g. The company branched out into selling insurance. I decided to branch out on my own. The company is now hoping to branch out in an attempt to get new customers. In the longer term, the company wants to branch out into providing investment advice.







 to become or make something become available in a place in large numbers. E.g. flood something Cheap imported goods are flooding the market. Overseas producers started flooding the market with cheap goods, and we couldn't compete.







to become different in a particular way, especially a bad way. E.g. Supplies are running low. We've run short of milk.




Must-see/ must-read/ must-have, etc. 




used to tell people that something is so good or interesting that they should see, read, get it, etc. E.g. Sydney is one of the world's must-see cities. The magazine is a must-read in the show business world. This is on my must-do list. A must-have for any fan. Venice is a must-visit for anyone on their first trip to Italy. This is a must.








to allow yourself to have or do something that you like, especially something that is considered bad for you. E.g. indulge in something They went into town to indulge in some serious shopping. Indulge yourself (with something) I indulged myself with a long hot bath. Indulge in some retail therapy.








/spriː/ a short period of time that you spend doing one particular activity that you enjoy, but often too much of it. E.g. a shopping/ spending spree. E.g. He's out on a spree (Sp. de juerga). Go on a spending spree (Sp. gastar dinero a lo loco).




On the spur of the moment




suddenly, without planning in advance. E.g. He decided on the spur of the moment to buy flowers for his wife.




Spend extravagantly/ freely/ wisely




Pay generously/ handsomely








/ˈɪmpʌls/ a sudden strong wish or need to do something, without stopping to think about the results. E.g. He had a sudden impulse to stand up and sing. Buy something on impulse.




Load/ push/ wheel (British English) a trolley/ (North American English) a cart.




Stand in/ wait in (British English) the checkout queue/ (North American English) the checkout line.



(North American English) stand in line/ (British English) queue at the checkout.







a supply of goods that is available for sale in a shop/ store. Sp. existencia. E.g. be in/ have in/ be out of/ run out of stock.



Run a special promotion



Buy something in the sales



Be on special offer








/ˈbɑːɡən/ a thing bought for less than the usual price. E.g. find/ get/ pick up a bargain. I picked up a few good bargains in the sale. The car was a bargain at that price. Bargain prices.








 the (large) size or quantity of something. E.g. buy/ order something in bulk. A bulk order (= one for a large number of similar items). Bulk buying (= buying in large amounts, often at a reduced price). It's cheaper to buy in bulk.








 connected with goods that are bought and sold in large quantities, especially so they can be sold again to make a profit. E.g. wholesale prices.








E.g. fruit and vegetable wholesalers. 








 the selling of goods to the public, usually through shops/ stores. E.g. The recommended retail price is £9.99. Department stores and other retail outlets. The retail trade.








 E.g. Mercadona is one of the country's largest food retailers.




Up for something 




on offer for something. E.g. The house is up for sale.




Make/ complete a purchase








 the activity of looking at the goods in shop/ store windows, usually without intending to buy anything. E.g. to go window-shopping. To do a bit of window-shopping. 


Picture 4


Flea market:  




an outdoor market that sells second-hand (= old or used) goods at low prices.




Car boot sale: 




 an outdoor sale where people sell things that they no longer want, using tables or the backs of their cars to put the goods on. E.g. Buy/ sell/ find something at (British English) a car boot sale/(British English) a jumble sale/ a garage sale/ (North American English) a yard sale.




A jumble sale: (also rummage /ˈrʌmɪdʒ/ sale




a sale of old or used clothes, etc. to make money for a church, school or other organization.








/ˈrʌmɪdʒ/ to move things around carelessly while searching for something. E.g. She was rummaging around in her bag for her keys. I rummaged through the contents of the box until I found the book I wanted.



jumble (of something) 




 an untidy or confused mixture of things. E.g. a jumble of books and paper. Jumbled letters.




Charity shop (Am English thrift shop/ store) 




a shop/ store that sells clothes and other goods given by people to raise money for a charity. E.g. donate something to/ take something to/ find something in (British English) a charity shop/(North American English) a thrift store. When the children outgrew their toys, I donated them to a charity.




Outgrow, outgrew, outgrown:  




1 outgrow something to grow too big to be able to wear or fit into something. Grow out of. E.g. She's already outgrown her school uniform. The company has outgrown its offices. 

 2 outgrow somebody to grow taller, larger or more quickly than another person. E.g. He's already outgrown his older brother. 

 3 outgrow something to stop doing something or lose interest in something as you become older. Grow out of. E.g. He's outgrown his passion for rock music. When the children outgrew their toys, I donated them to a charity.




Revamp something




/ˌriːˈvæmp/ (V) to make changes to the form of something, usually to improve its appearance. E.g. revamp your wardrobe. Revamp (N) /ˈriːvæmp/ E.g. Could your kitchen do with a revamp?




Be in/ come into/ go out of fashion



Vogue (for something)




/vəʊɡ/ a fashion for something. The vogue for child-centred education. Black is in vogue again. Sixties music has come back into vogue. This novel had a great vogue ten years ago. Be (back/ very much) in vogue. Create a vogue for something.








 a set of clothes that you wear together, especially for a particular occasion or purpose. E.g. She was wearing an expensive new outfit. Sp. Conjunto. 



haggle (with somebody) (over something) 



to argue with somebody in order to reach an agreement, especially about the price of something. E.g.  I left him in the market haggling over the price of a shirt.


bargain: (V)




/ˈbɑːɡən/ to discuss prices, conditions, etc. with somebody in order to reach an agreement that is acceptable. Negotiate. E.g. In the market dealers were bargaining with growers over the price of coffee. He said he wasn't prepared to bargain.







to exchange goods, property, services, etc. for other goods, etc. without using money. E.g.
The prisoners tried to barter with the guards for items like writing paper and books. The local people bartered wheat for tools.


Picture 5






 the regular way in which something happens or is done. E.g changing patterns of behaviour. An irregular sleeping pattern. The murders all seem to follow a (similar) pattern (= happen in the same way). Shopping patterns are changing and there are trends in shopping which are more relevant to young people.




Home shopping




 the practice of ordering goods by phone or by email and having them delivered to your home.




Buy/ purchase something online/ by mail order 




Mail order: 




a system of buying and selling goods through the mail. E.g. All our products are available by mail order. A mail-order company. A mail-order catalogue.




Pay (in) cash/ by (credit/debit) card/ (British English) with a gift voucher/ (North American English) with a gift certificate.




Gift voucher / gift token/ gift certificate (Am Eng) 




 a piece of paper that is worth a particular amount of money and that can be exchanged for goods in a shop/ store.




Buy something on credit: E.g. We bought the dishwasher on credit.




Buy/ pay for/ order something in advance


Monologue questions


Weigh down:  




1. to make somebody feel worried or anxious. Burden. E.g. The responsibilities of the job are weighing her down. 

2. To make somebody/something heavier so that they are not able to move easily. E.g. I was weighed down with baggage. She tried to swim to the surface, but her clothes and shoes weighed her down.




Hoard (something)




/hɔːd/ to collect and hide or store away large amounts of food, money, etc. E.g. thousands of antiques hoarded by a compulsive collector.




Lay sth in/up: 




to collect and store something to use in the future. E.g. To lay in food supplies.


stock up/ stock up on something/ stock up with something

to buy a lot of something so that you can use it later. E.g. We ought to stock up on film before our trip.


cluttered (up) (with somebody/something)  




covered with, or full of, a lot of things or people, in a way that is untidy a cluttered room/desk


Teacher's questions

Question 1

bit on the side:  
money earned outside one's normal job. ‘I'd like to make a bit on the side.’
to have a second job that you do secretly, usually without paying tax on the extra money that you earn. E.g. He spent years moonlighting as a cab driver.

Eke out a living: 




 to manage to live with very little money. E.g. many traders barely eked out a living


Question 2


In full swing




having reached a very lively level. Sp. en su máximo esplendor. E.g. When we arrived the party was already in full swing. We can expect to treble our turnover once the January sales get into full swing.




In arrears




/əˈrɪəz/ if money or a person is paid in arrears for work, the money is paid after the work has been done. If someone is in arrears, or if their payments are in arrears, they are late in paying something that they should pay regularly, such as rent. Sp. atrasado. E.g. Pay for something in arrears. Many people are in arrears with their rent. The rent money is two months in arrears.








/ˈmɔːɡɪdʒ/ (also informal home loan) E.g. to apply for/ take out/ pay off a mortgage. Mortgage rates (= of interest). A mortgage on the house. A mortgage of £60000. Monthly mortgage payments. Struggle to pay the mortgage. Make/ meet/ keep up/ cover the monthly mortgage payments/ (British English also) repayments.




Afford/ pay the rent




Fall behind with the rent 




Break the lease/ rental agreement/ contract




Lose/ return a damage deposit/ (North American English) security deposit 




Evict somebody (from something):  




/ɪˈvɪkt/ to force somebody to leave a house or land, especially when you have the legal right to do so. E.g. A number of tenants have been evicted for not paying the rent. The council has tried to get them evicted. Evict the existing tenants. Eviction /ɪˈvɪkʃn/ noun E.g. to face eviction from your home.





(British English) repossess/ (especially North American English) foreclose on somebody's home/ house.

Repossess something: 




  /ˌriːpəˈzes/ to take back property or goods from somebody who has arranged to buy them but who still owes money for them and cannot pay. E.g. (British English) First I lost my job, then my house was repossessed. Repossession /ˌriːpəˈzeʃn/ E.g. families threatened with repossession. A repossession order. Auctions are the best place for buying repossessions.








In North American English, when a bank takes possession of somebody's house because they cannot afford to pay the money they owe on it, the usual word is foreclose, but repossess is used in other contexts. E.g. the bank was threatening to foreclose on his mortgage







 /fɔːˈkləʊʒə(r)/ (N) E.g. When a homeowner can't afford to pay her mortgage, she might face foreclosure, which is when a bank repossesses a borrower's house. A bank most often starts foreclosure proceedings against someone who's taken out a loan to buy a house when that person stops making monthly payments. The agreement a borrower makes when she gets a bank mortgage is that she'll pay a certain amount of money every month, and failing to do it means risking foreclosure.




Find/ get a housemate/ (British English) a flatmate/ (North American English) a roommate.




Put your house/ property on the market/ up for sale/ up for auction.




Increase/ lower your price/ the asking price.




Have/ hold/ hand over the deed/ (especially British English) deeds of/ to the house, land, etc. 



Deed: (often plural)




a legal document that you sign, especially one that proves that you own a house or a building. Sp. escritura. E.g. the deeds of the house. 




To rescue somebody/ bail somebody out financially.



Bail somebody out (of something) 




to rescue somebody from a difficult situation, especially by providing money. E.g. The government had to bail the company out of financial difficulty. Don't expect me to bail you out if it all goes wrong. Ryan's late goal bailed out his team. Bailout (N) an act of giving money to a company, a foreign country, etc. that has very serious financial problems. The airline was saved by a government bailout.




In deep water(s)




(informal) in trouble or difficulty. When we realized we were in deep water, it took us ages to cut our losses and sell up.




Cut your losses




 to stop doing something that is not successful before the situation becomes even worse. E.g. I decided to cut my losses and move back to England.



Sell up




 (especially British English) to sell most of what you own, especially your home, possessions, business, etc, usually because you are leaving the country or retiring.



loan shark:  




a person who lends money at very high rates of interest. E.g. reports of exploitation and deceptive trading practices by loan sharks




Save carefully/ hard.




Trade down




 to spend less money on things than you used to. E.g. Shoppers are trading down and looking for bargains.




Pay in full 

In full




 including the whole of something. E.g. The address must be printed in full








/ɪnˈstɔːlmənt/ One of a number of payments that are made regularly over a period of time until something has been paid for. We paid for the car by/ in instalments. The final instalment on the loan is due next week. The loan can be repaid in 24 monthly instalments. They were unable to keep up (= continue to pay regularly) the instalments.


Question 3






/ˈfɔːlti/ not perfect; not working or made correctly. Defective. E.g. Ask for a refund if the goods are faulty.







/ˈriːfʌnd/ a sum of money that is paid back to you, especially because you paid too much or because you returned goods to a shop/ store. E.g. be entitled to/ ask for/ demand a refund.








/ˌɒbsəˈlesns/ the state of becoming old-fashioned and no longer useful. E.g. products with built-in/ planned obsolescence (= designed not to last long so that people will have to buy new ones).

Junk something (informal):   

to get rid of something because it is no longer valuable or useful. E.g. All their old computers had been junked. His proposals were junked before they were even considered.  

Question 4






a series of planned activities that are intended to achieve a particular social, commercial or political aim. E.g. An advertising campaign. The government has spent $1 million on an advertising campaign to encourage energy conservation. 



By/in leaps and bounds




very quickly; in large amounts. E.g. Her health has improved in leaps and bounds. Advertising has developed in leaps and bounds over the past 50 years.




Come up against somebody/ something:  




to be faced with or opposed by somebody/ something.  Encounter. Sp. tropezar con. E.g. We expect to come up against a lot of opposition to the plan. One of the problems advertisers have come up against in recent years is that consumers are more sophisticated and more demanding than they were in the past.








/ˈsləʊɡən/ a word or phrase that is easy to remember, used for example by a political party or in advertising to attract people's attention or to suggest an idea quickly. E.g. an advertising slogan. An advertising slogan should be short, striking and easily remembered. A campaign slogan. The crowd began chanting anti-government slogans.








a type of product made by a particular company. E.g. Which brand of toothpaste do you use? I didn't know which brand of soap powder you used, so I just bought the supermarket's own. (British English) You pay less for the supermarket's own brand. (North American English) You pay less for the store brand. Brand loyalty (= the tendency of customers to continue buying the same brand). Champagne houses owe their success to brand image. The leading brand of detergent. Brand name (the name given to a product by the company that produces it).



Own- brand (also own-label) (Am. Eng. store-brand) (adj) 




used to describe goods that are marked with the name of the shop/ store in which they are sold rather than with the name of the company that produced them. E.g. own-brand coffee.




Make (of something)




 the name or type of a machine, piece of equipment, etc. that is made by a particular company. E.g. What make of car does he drive? There are so many different makes to choose from. A Swiss make of watch








 a company that produces and sells music, CDs, etc. The name or trademark of a fashion company.  E.g. the Virgin record label. It's his first release for a major label. She plans to launch her own designer clothes label.








 (adj) made by a famous designer; expensive and having a famous brand name. E.g. designer jeans. Designer labels. Designer water. He had a trendy haircut, an earring and designer stubble (= a short beard, grown for two or three days and thought to look fashionable). Spend/ waste money on designer clothes.








/dɪˈluːd/ to make somebody believe something that is not true. Deceive. E.g. We deluded ourselves into thinking we would never go bankrupt. Don't be deluded into thinking that we are out of danger yet.








 giving the wrong idea or impression and making you believe something that is not true. Deceptive. E.g. Traders shouldn't give a false or misleading description of what they are selling. Misleading information/ advertisements. I feel that this claim is misleading and irresponsible.




Coax something out of/ from somebody:  




/kəʊks/ to gently persuade somebody to do something or give you something. Sp. sonsacar, sacar. E.g. The director coaxed a brilliant performance out of the cast. Every little thing in big supermarkets is thought out in minute (/maɪˈnjuːt/ very small) detail to coax the money out of your pocket.








/ˌʌnˈdjuː/ more than you think is reasonable or necessary. Excessive. E.g. They are taking undue advantage of the situation. The work should be carried out without undue delay. We did not want to put any undue pressure on them. The advert places undue emphasis on speed. They should remove it from their campaign.








/ˈsuːtəbl/ /ˈsjuːtəbl/ right or appropriate for a particular purpose or occasion. E.g. Some commercials that appear during children's programmes are not suitable for showing on children's TV and many people object to them.







 /ɪɡˈzæktɪŋ/ needing or demanding a lot of effort and care about details. Demanding. E.g.
exacting work. Products designed to meet the exacting standards of today's marketplace. He was an exacting man to work for. Advertisers are  very often scrupulous /ˈskruːpjələs/, meticulous /məˈtɪkjələs/ and exacting.








a person, place or thing that is especially good. Sp. joya. This picture is the gem (= the best) of the collection. A gem of a place. She's a real gem! Some of the adverts are real gems. Occasionally a gem of an advert comes up.








 /ˈkæʃeɪ/ if something has cachet, it has a special quality that people admire and approve of. Prestige. E.g. No other brand name has quite the same cachet. The cachet of the elegant Right Bank hotel.








 able to say or write clever, amusing things. Sp. agudo, ingenioso. E.g. a witty speaker. A witty remark. Which is the wittiest ad you have seen of late? Ads have to be stimulating and witty to captivate viewers.








/dɪˈstɪŋktɪv/ having a quality or characteristic that makes something different and easily noticed. E.g. clothes with a distinctive style. The male bird has distinctive white markings on its head. The Sunday paper you get each individual weekend is also filled with distinctive adverts. It's one of the most distinctive adverts of the last few years. An ad has to be distinctive.








 immediately noticeable because it is particularly interesting, bright or attractive. Sp. llamativo, vistoso. E.g. an eye-catching advertisement. Beautiful clothes in eye-catching colours. 








 that makes you pay attention to it because it is so interesting and exciting. E.g. Her latest book makes compelling reading. John Lewis' Monty the Penguin is the most compelling Christmas ad by a high street retailer, according to a new study.


Craze: /kreɪz/ craze (for something)  




an enthusiastic interest in something that is shared by many people but that usually does not last very long; a thing that people have a craze for. Fad. Sp. lo último, popular, moda, locura. E.g. the latest fitness craze to sweep the country. The commercial started a craze for nostalgic train tourism.








 something that people are interested in for only a short period of time. E.g. the latest/ current fad. A fad for physical fitness. Rap music proved to be more than just a passing fad.




Go through the roof 




 (of prices, etc.) to rise or increase very quickly. House prices here have gone through the roof. If adverts can start a craze, sales of the product will probably go through the roof.








/ˈpestə(r)/ to annoy somebody, especially by asking them something many times. Advertisers deliberately encourage children to pester their parents to buy products they don't need and can't afford. How to stop cold callers pestering you for good?


cold call



 a telephone call made to somebody that you do not know, in order to sell them something. Unsolicited call.








to keep complaining to somebody about their behaviour or keep asking them to do something. E.g. She had been nagging him to paint the fence. Children nag their parents for presents they can't afford.








/ˈhɔːdɪŋ/ (also billboard North American English, British English) [countable] a large board on the outside of a building or at the side of the road, used for putting advertisements on. E.g. advertising hoardings. A company has put up a large advertising hoarding on the side of the road. 


Question 5


Shopping precinct:  




/ˈpriːsɪŋkt/ an area of a town or city where cars are not allowed, so that it is easy for people to walk between the many shops, banks, restaurants, etc. in the precinct.




High street:  




the main street of a town, where most shops/stores, banks, etc. are. E.g. high-street banks/shops. High street giants are struggling against out-of-town retail outlets. The best shops are on the high street.








/mɔːl/ /mæl/ (also shopping mall) a large building or covered area that has many shops/ stores, restaurants, etc. inside it. Let's go to the mall. Some teenagers were hanging out at the mall.




Question 6






/ˈɔːkʃn/ a public event at which things are sold to the person who offers the most money for them. E.g. A classic Rolls-Royce fetched (= was sold for) £25000 at auction. Buy something at auction



Question 7


Mystery shopper: 




a person whose job is to visit or telephone a shop/ store or other business pretending to be a customer, in order to get information on the quality of the service, the facilities, etc. E.g. The best way to find out how your company is running is by using a mystery shopper. Stores and restaurants that have many or even thousands of different locations rely on mystery shoppers all over the country, to check every store. Below is a list of companies that hire mystery shoppers to privately investigate their businesses whether it's a retail outlet, restaurant, fast food chain, clothing store or a new movie.
Today, mystery shopping is primarily used by businesses to measure their customer service.



Question 8






 money that you spend while you are working and which your employer will pay back to you later. E.g. You can claim back your travelling/ travel expenses. (British English) to take a client out for a meal on expenses. An all-expenses-paid trip. Pay for something on expenses.

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