Monday, 21 November 2011

Objective Proficiency p 52. Keys and Vocabulary

P. 181
Off-key: 1 (of a voice or a musical instrument) not in tune. 2 not suitable or correct in a particular situation. Inappropriate. E.g. Some of his remarks were very off-key. Off-key (adverb) E.g. to sing off-key.

A foregone conclusion: /ˈfɔːɡɒn/ if you say that something is a foregone conclusion, you mean that it is a result that is certain to happen. Sp. Es de prever, está cantado. E.g. The outcome of the vote is a foregone conclusion.

The chances are (that)…: (informal) it is likely that…E.g. The chances are you won't have to pay.

There's every likelihood: e.g. There's every likelihood over the coming days that we will see new fires. Most worryingly, there's every likelihood (that) there will be more protests. 

Bound to do/be something certain or likely to happen, or to do or be something. E.g. There are bound to be changes when the new system is introduced. It's bound to be sunny again tomorrow. You've done so much work—you're bound to pass the exam. It was bound to happen sooner or later (= we should have expected it). You're bound to be nervous the first time (= it's easy to understand). 

There's a slim/ faint chance: very small; possible but unlikely. e.g. There's a slim chance a storm could put the city under 6 feet of water. A slim chance of success. They don't have the faintest chance of winning.

It's doubtfulunlikely; not probable. E.g. With her injuries it's doubtful that she'll ever walk again. It's doubtful whether the car will last another year. It's doubtful if this painting is a Picasso.

Ex 1
KEY

a. B strong probability/ possibility



b. B strong probability/ possibility



c. A complete certainty (negative and positive)



d. B strong probability/ possibility



e. B strong probability/ possibility



f. A complete certainty (negative and positive) 



g. B strong probability/ possibility



h. A complete certainty (negative and positive) 



i. B strong probability/ possibility 



j. B strong probability/ possibility  



k. D general or theoretical probability/ possibility



l.  A complete certainty (negative and positive) 



m. C weak probability/ possibility 

Ex 2
Possible answers

a There is every likelihood that another Mozart will be born. I can’t believe that only one musical genius will ever exist.



b I guess an asteroid could hit the Earth, but the government is bound to do all in its power to prevent it.



c People may well have brain transplants in the future – after all, we have transplants for most parts of the body, don’t we?




d I think there’s only a faint chance that English will be the language of the Internet in the future. I think Chinese will take over.

Take over (from somebody)/ take something over (from somebody): 1 to begin to have control of or responsibility for something, especially in place of somebody else. 2 to gain control of a political party, a country, etc. The army is threatening to take over if civil unrest continues.




e There’s no chance of New Zealand winning the football World Cup – not when there are teams from France, Spain, Italy and Brazil.




f It’s a foregone conclusion that electric cars are the cars of the future. It stands to reason that oil reserves won’t last forever.

A foregone conclusion: /ˈfɔːɡɒn/ if you say that something is a foregone conclusion, you mean that it is a result that is certain to happen. Sp. Es de prever, está cantado. E.g. The outcome of the vote is a foregone conclusion.

it stands to reason: (informal) it must be clear to any sensible person who thinks about it. E.g. It stands to reason that they'll leave if you don't pay them enough.

Ex 3
Possible answers
a landing on the Moon
 



b a royal wedding
 



c possibly Madonna
 



d possibly Federer – anyone who is a sports champion who is about to retire
 



e possibly polio, AIDS or smallpox (Sp. viruela)

breakthrough an important development that may lead to an agreement or achievement. E.g. to make/ achieve a breakthrough. A significant breakthrough in negotiations. A major breakthrough in cancer research.

knock something + adverb/preposition to make a hole in something by hitting it hard. E.g. They managed to knock a hole in the wall.

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