Wednesday, 23 November 2011

Objective Proficiency p 54. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1
KEY
brass: trumpet /ˈtrʌmpɪt/

Brass: / brɑːs/ the musical instruments made of metal, such as trumpets or French horns, that form a band or section of an orchestra; the people who play them. E.g. music for piano, strings and brass.



electronic: /ɪˌlekˈtrɒnɪk/ synthesizer /ˈsɪnθəsaɪzə(r)/ 





keyboard: piano
 




percussion: /pəˈkʌʃn/ triangle /traɪæŋɡl/ ; drum; xylophone /ˈzaɪləfəʊn/
Percussion: /pəˈkʌʃn/ musical instruments that you play by hitting them with your hand or with a stick, for example drums. E.g. percussion instruments. The track features Joey Langton on percussion.

xylophone /ˈzaɪləfəʊn/ a musical instrument made of two rows of wooden bars of different lengths that you hit with two small sticks

 



string: violin; guitar; cello /ˈtʃeləʊ/  



woodwind: clarinet; flute; saxophone
Woodwind: the group of musical instruments in an orchestra that are mostly made of wood or metal and are played by blowing. Flutes and clarinets are woodwind instruments. The woodwind section of the orchestra.
Ex 2
KEY

1 carved 
Intricately: / ˈɪntrɪkətli / having a lot of different parts and small details that fit together. Elaborately. E.g. intricately carved (Sp. tallado).


2 cold 



3 flexibility 
Grain: (in this sense it is uncountable) the natural direction of lines in wood, cloth, etc. or of layers of rock; the pattern of lines that you can see. Sp. Veta. E.g. to cut a piece of wood along/across the grain


4 wastage/waste 
Wastage: / ˈweɪstɪdʒ/ the amount of something that is wasted. E.g. There is little wastage from a lean (without fat) cut of meat. Always allow for some wastage when ordering building materials.


5 ribs 
Rib: a curved piece of wood, metal or plastic that forms the frame of a boat, roof, etc. and makes it stronger.



6 glue 



7 neck 



8 varnish 
Varnish: /ˈvɑːnɪʃ/ a liquid that is painted onto wood, metal, etc. and that forms a hard shiny transparent surface when it is dry. Sp. Barniz. E.g. I'll give the shelves a coat of varnish.


9 tone

Vocabulary
However: used with an adjective or adverb to mean ‘to whatever degree. ’He wanted to take no risks, however small (Sp. por pequeños que fueran). She has the window open, however cold it is outside. However carefully I explained, she still didn't understand. 

All of its own: own. Sp. Propia, suya. E.g  the island (Corsica) belongs to France but it has an atmosphere all of its own.

Intricately: / ˈɪntrɪkətli / having a lot of different parts and small details that fit together. Elaborately. E.g. intricately carved (Sp. tallado).
Grain: (in this sense it is uncountable) the natural direction of lines in wood, cloth, etc. or of layers of rock; the pattern of lines that you can see. Sp. Veta. E.g. to cut a piece of wood along/across the grain

grained: with fibres in a clear arrangement, pattern, or direction. E.g. grained oak doors. Finely grained wood.

Maple: a tall tree with leaves that have five points and turn bright red or yellow in the autumn/ fall. Sp. Maples grow in northern countries. Sp. Arce.

Woodwork: the activity or skill of making things from wood. Sp. Carpintería.

Wastage: / ˈweɪstɪdʒ/ the amount of something that is wasted. E.g. There is little wastage from a lean (without fat) cut of meat. Always allow for some wastage when ordering building materials. 
Rib: a curved piece of wood, metal or plastic that forms the frame of a boat, roof, etc. and makes it stronger.

undertake something to make yourself responsible for something and start doing it. E.g. to undertake a task/ project. University professors both teach and undertake research. The company has announced that it will undertake a full investigation into the accident.

Grubby: rather dirty, usually because it has not been washed or cleaned. E.g. grubby hands/ clothes.

Varnish: /ˈvɑːnɪʃ/ a liquid that is painted onto wood, metal, etc. and that forms a hard shiny transparent surface when it is dry. Sp. Barniz. E.g. I'll give the shelves a coat of varnish.

Mellow: /ˈmeləʊ/ soft, rich and pleasant. Sp. Dulce, melodioso, suave. E.g. mellow autumn colours. Mellow music and lighting helped to create the right atmosphere.

… days, weeks, etc. hence(formal) a number of days, etc. from now. E.g. The true consequences will only be known several years hence.

 More useful vocabulary
  • Pliable: / ˈplaɪəbl/ easy to bend without breaking. Flexible. E.g. The plant has long pliable stems (Sp. tallos).

  • Fussy: too concerned or worried about details or standards, especially unimportant ones. Sp. Exigente, quisquilloso. E.g. fussy parents. Our teacher is very fussy about punctuation. She's such a fussy eater. ‘Where do you want to go for lunch?’ ‘I'm not fussy (= I don't mind).’
  • Slope: an area of land that is part of a mountain or hill. E.g. the eastern slopes of the Andes. Ski slopes. He spends all winter on the slopes (= skiing ).
  • Scroll: a decoration cut in stone or wood with a curved shape like a roll of paper.

  • Birch: a tree with smooth bark and thin branches, that grows in northern countries. Sp. Abedul.
  • Plywood: board made by sticking thin layers of wood on top of each other. E.g. sheets of plywood. Plywood furniture.


  • Sharp: loud, sudden and often high in tone. E.g. She read out the list in sharp, clipped tones. There was a sharp knock on the door. 
  • Clipped: clear and fast but not very friendly. E.g. His clipped military tones.
Style extra
KEY

a. A monster is widely believed to live in Loch Ness.
 



b. She gave her boyfriend a carefully chosen birthday present.
 



c.  Designer clothes are more keenly priced in out-of-town retail outlets.
Keenly priced: kept low in order to compete with other prices.



d. The seats for the rock concert were staggeringly expensive.
Staggeringly: /ˈstæɡərɪŋli/ so great, shocking or surprising that it is difficult to believe. E.g. staggeringly beautiful/expensive.



e. The new album has been singularly successful and has reached number one. 
Singularly: /ˈsɪŋɡjələli/ very; in an unusual way. E.g. singularly beautiful. He chose a singularly inappropriate moment to make his request.

More vocabulary
  • Strenuously: /ˈstrenjuəsli/ showing great energy and determination. Sp. Enérgicamente. E.g. The government strenuously denies the allegations.
Idiom spot
KEY
a note
of note of importance or of great interest. E.g. a scientist of note. The museum contains nothing of great note. 



b tune 
Be in/out of tune (with somebody/something): to be/ not be in agreement with somebody/ something; to have/ not have the same opinions, feelings, interests, etc. as somebody/ something. E.g. These proposals are perfectly in tune with our own thoughts on the subject. The President is out of tune with public opinion.



c song 
Bid (for something): an offer by a person or a company to pay a particular amount of money for something. E.g. At the auction (= a public sale where things are sold to the person who offers the most), the highest bid for the picture was £200. Any more bids?
For a song: (informal) very cheaply; at a low price. E.g. She bought the painting for a song. The property is going for a song because they need to sell it fast.



d string
Have another string/more strings to your bow: to have more than one skill or plan that you can use if you need to. E.g. The exhibition shows that he has other strings to his artistic bow. 

Bow: /bəʊ/ a long thin piece of wood with thin string stretched along it, used for playing musical instruments such as the violin. 






e score 

Settle a score/an account (with somebody) / settle an old scoreto hurt or punish somebody who has harmed or cheated you in the past. E.g. ‘Who would do such a thing?’ ‘Maybe someone with an old score to settle.’ 



f note 
Hit/strike the right/wrong note: to do, say or write something that is suitable/ not suitable for a particular occasion. E.g. It is a bizarre tale and the author hits just the right note of horror and disbelief.  The speech seemed to strike the right note with the crowd. She struck the right note when she complimented the new parents on their baby. Marjorie planned the party carefully because she wanted to strike the right note with her guests. Meg struck the right note when she wore a dark suit to the interview. The politician's speech failed to strike the right note with the crowd.



g chord 
Strike/touch a chord (with somebody): to say or do something that makes people feel sympathy or enthusiasm. E.g. The speaker had obviously struck a chord with his audience.

More vocabulary

  • Play second fiddle (to somebody/something): to be treated as less important than somebody/ something; to have a less important position than somebody/ something else. E.g. I'm not going to play second fiddle to anyone. The narrative in this book plays second fiddle to the excellent photographs. 

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